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  Compressed TOC
The Process of Protein Digestion
Adaptation of Parasites to their mode of Life
Micro-organisms and food processing:
   The Bacteria
   The Fungi 
Methods of Food Preservation
Adaptation of the Mammalian Heart to its Functions
Transportation of gases in the blood:
   Carbon Dioxide
The mechanism of movement of water from soil to leaves of a tall plant
The Mechanism of Translocation by:
   Cytoplasmic Streaming
   Mass Flow
Adaptations of the Phloem Tissue
The role of Transpiration in plants
The Environmental Factors Affecting Transpiration
Gaseous Exchange in plants and Animals
Adaptations of the airways for gaseous exchange
Adaptations of the Lungs for Gaseous exchange
The process of Inspiration and Expiration in Mammals
Mechanism of gaseous Exchange in:
       Bony Fish,
The Mechanism of Opening and Closing of Stomata
Adaptation of the Kidney to its Functions
Formation of Urea in Human Body
Adaptations of the Human Skin to its Functions
Changes on the Skin due to Temperature Variation
The Role of Hormones in Homeostasis
Reproduction In Animals
Adaptation of the Mammalian Male Reproductive Organ to its Functions
The Influence of Hormones on Menstrual Cycle
Mechanisms that hinder self-fertilization  in Plants
The adaptations of Insect-Pollinated flowers
Events that take place after fertilization until a new fruit is formed
Adaptation of seeds for Dispersal
Water and Air Pollution, and the remedies
Adaptation of plants to their Habitat
     Xerophytes (Desert Plants);
     Hydrophytes (Water Plants)

..Home/Contents/ Adaptation of Parasites


Describe how parasites (eg tape worm)are adapted to parasitic mode of life.

Parasites have attachment devices like hooks and suckers; which enable them to cling on the host body preventing them from being washed away; 

Parasites have protective devices like thick cuticles, copius production of mucus and secretion of anti-enzymes; which protect them from the host digestive enzymes;

Endo-parasites like tape worms have long body to increase the sur5face area for efficient absorption of food; 

Most of the internal parasites use a secondary host which enhance their transmission; 

Parasites are generally prolific and lay numerous number of eggs; this increases chances of survival; 

Some of the internal parasites are hermaphrodites; hence they do not depend another partner for fertilization to occur (they are self fertilized) 

Parasites like tape worms have flattened body; to increase the surface area for efficient absorption of food in the host digestive tract; 

Internal parasites show degeneration of most organs so as to fit well in the host digestive tract; 

Tape worms have proglottides through which numerous eggs are dispersed; 

Some of endo-parasites like tape worms are anaerobic hence they can withstand the low oxygen concentration in the intestines of the host;


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