impacts of population growth to water catchment areas

FOREWORD
The main goal of any development plan is to guide implementation of activities in different sectors in order to improve the lives of ordinary people and communities. This is especially true of Kenya where the Grand Coalition Government is determined to bring to an end the tradition of preparing good plans that are not implemented in full.
This sector plan covers medium term programmes and projects in five related ministries. These are Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources, Public Health and Sanitation, Ministry of State for Special Programmes, and Ministry of State for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid Lands. Three of these ministries form the Sector Working Group (SWG) of Environment, Water and Sanitation. The SWG is expected to work as a facilitator linking the budgetary process to this sector plan, to ensure that public sector resources are made available for implementation. However, public sector resources alone will not be enough to meet our overall planning goals. The Vision 2030 anticipates a major role in the use of Private-Public-Partnerships in mobilizing the needed investment. The role of the private sector, development partners and Kenyans themselves in realizing this sectoral plan is spelt out in this document.
The sector plan is part and parcel of the First Medium Term Plan (2008-2012) of the Kenya Vision 2030. It is therefore clear that this sector plan is an integral and more detailed part of the First Medium Term Plan, and that its main objective is to provide the projects and programmes which specific ministries are expected to implement over the first phase (2008-2012) of the Vision 2030.
This sector plan is therefore intended to bring under one roof the main projects and programmes that the Sector Working Group will accord priority as it allocates budgetary resources to the projects in an effort to promote national development, to move our country forward in its quest to eliminate poverty and move our people towards prosperity, employment in a safe and secure environment as envisaged in the Vision 2030. The sector plan will also provide information to the citizens of Kenya on what each ministry is expected to implement in the First Medium Term Plan. This will promote more transparency and accountability in our planning and implementation process. It also contains the estimated costs of the projects based on the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF). In addition, some of the ministries within the sector have already reflected the projects in their strategic plans for implementation. This will prove a suitable mechanism for monitoring and evaluation.
The plan is a result of the collaborative and consultative effort of the concerned ministries, the Ministry of Finance, Office the President, development partners and relevant stakeholders. Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 coordinated the preparation of the sector plans. The Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate in the Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and 2030, in consultation with the implementing ministries, has developed indicators for evaluation and monitoring.

PREFACE
This sector Plan is the first one which will cover the period (2008-2012). The plan highlights in details the key programmes and projects that will be implemented in contributing towards the realization of Kenya’s Vision 2030 in the social pillar. The aspirations of this sector is a nation with a clean, secure and sustainable environment,water and sanitation by 2030.The Sector in collaboration with other players will therefore promote environmental conservation to better support the economic pillar’s aspirations and the Millennium Development Goal No. 7 on ensuring environmental sustainability. Important priority projects and programmes will be implemented through increased budgetary allocations, implementation of key reforms in the sub sectors as highlighted in the plan.

The sector is faced with major challenge that needs to be addressed in order to achieve goals set out in the Vision 2030. Pollution and waste management, Water scarcity, catchment degradation, poor physical planning in urban centres, low water resource monitoring, a review of Millennium Development Goal number 7 to adapt it to specific national environmental goals with attainable measurable targets and indicators which will support systems for early warning on environmental changes. Given the global changes in climate and weather patterns, planning for adequate water resources is becoming an increasingly difficult challenge as rain becomes unreliable and more complex to forecast. Rain-fed Agriculture is no longer reliable hence there is need for increase in use of water harvesting technologies and storage.

An important part of this plan is that it has been prepared through a consultative process that brought all the stakeholders and line Ministries on board. The plan has therefore taken all comments from the stakeholders and development partners that were provided during the preparation of the sector plan.

I wish to sincerely thank all those who participated in the preparation of this first sector plan for environment, water and sanitation (2008-2012). In particular, I would like to acknowledge the important role played by the Central Planning and Project Monitoring Unit in the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources which provide secretariat services all along for the successful implementation of the sector plan despite the facilitation challenges they faced. I also wish to acknowledge the contribution from the following line ministries without which preparation of this plan would not have been successful, Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 in coordinating the preparation of this report, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Ministry of Forest and Wildlife, Ministry of State for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid Lands, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports; Ministry of State for Special Programmes and all government Parastatals.

Executive Summary

The Environment, Water and Sanitation Sector Plan identifies the programmes and projects that will be implemented in the Plan period 2008-2012 to address to the various challenges facing these sectors. The Plan aims are ensuring that environment, water and sanitation sector policies are integrated into programmes and project development through involvement of a wide spectrum of stakeholders and building and strengthening of partnerships with the private sector. It also aims at ensuring that the people of Kenya live and work in a clean and secure environment as expected in the Vision 2030. The major challenges facing this sector include environmental degradation, decreasing forest cover, deteriorating water and air quality and solid waste management, climate change and global warming. Other challenges facing this sector include unsustainable farming practices, alien and invasive species. The Environment Sector forms the bedrock of productive sectors and is key to poverty reduction and improvement of livelihoods. The achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and attainment of the aspirations of Vision – 2030 is therefore closely linked to the successful implementation of programs and projects identified in this Plan.

One of the main challenges to the environment is land degradation. It has led to huge economic cost estimated at about 3% of GDP (about 390M US Dollars). Pollution and waste management are some of the leading environmental health problems in the country affecting both rural and urban populations, as a result of rising population, urbanization and industrialization. Climate change poses a serious challenge to social and economic development. While Kenya’s contribution to the Green House Gases (GHGs) is minimal in comparison to developed countries, it is adversely affected by effects of Climate Change. There is need to modernize the detection and prediction monitoring infrastructure that will help in strengthening attribution and draw scenario for developing appropriate adaption and mitigation strategies to reduce the negative impact of the adverse effects.

Another challenge facing the country is poor quality of water which has deteriorated over time due to increased commercial farming activities and use of agro-chemicals, rapid industrialization and inadequate enforcement of environmental regulation policies. Under this plan restoration and rehabilitation of river basins is the key policy to addressing water pollution and delivery of clean water to households for both domestic and livestock use.

To ensure that Water Resources Management will ensure that what is conserved preserved, protected and availed in such quality and quantity to sustain the various national demands. Sustainable utilization, development and management of water resources fundamentally underpin the achievement of long-term socio-economic goals. It is important to note that, access to adequate and reliable supply of water is a key input to poverty reduction and an important element for social stability and economic growth as well as meeting targets of Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Vision 2030. The Government is fully committed to improving the management and protection of water resources to ensure that water is available for equitable allocation for all the demands in the country.
To extend the amount of cultivable and the Government is fully committed to the development of irrigation. The level of irrigation in Kenya is low compared to its potential. In 2008, irrigation potential was estimated at 539,000 hectares, but only 114,600 hectares (about 20 per cent of irrigable land) have been exploited for agricultural production. However, with the construction of water storage facilities, the available irrigated land could be increased to 1.3 million hectares. This will be achieved through enhanced water storage capacity, thereby increasing agricultural production. This would also help control floods, which mainly affect poor communities.

To increase conservation of the nation’s water towers as ensured in Vision 2030, forest sub-sector plays a vital role. In the 5 years under the plan, conservation of bio-diversity and provision of forest products in the country will be undertaken. The current closed canopy forest cover is 1.7% or 1.24 million Hectares against the internationally recommended cover of 10%. Strengthening of forest governance structures by involvement of communities and other stakeholders will be enhanced to address this problem. The target will be met by improving plantation forestry promoting farm and dryland forestry with the overall objective of raising the tree forest cover to about 4% by 2012 and to 10% by 2030. The increase in forest cover will help conserve the environment, protect water catchments, control desertification and generally increase agricultural production and food security and improve people’s livelihoods.

The plan also aims at conserving our wildlife for its intrinsic and economic value Wildlife is estimated to contribute 75% of earnings in GDP from Tourism activities. Tourism accounts for about 10% of GDP. Kenya’s wildlife is one of the richest and most diversified in Africa, with several of its protected areas and wetlands internationally renowned as World Heritage Sites and RAMSAR sites. Protected areas have long been seen as successful in conservation of wildlife and environmental sustainability. Wildlife covers an area of about 8% of Kenya’s landmass. The major concern in wildlife is the loss of corridors, habitat degradation, security of tourism and infrastructure, and those will be addressed under the plan.

In addition, the country possesses substantial untapped mineral resources that remain largely underexplored making the sub-sector contribution to the GDP only about 1%. To date close to 20% which represent 110,000 square kilometres remain geologically unmapped and little is known about geological setting and mineral potential of the areas.

Between 2009 and 2012 the Government will intensify geological mapping and mineral exploration in those areas and at the same time finalize the creation of an enabling fiscal and legislative framework in order to attract investment in the mining sub-sector.

Like the rest of the world Kenya is concerned about the economic and social effects of climate change. Climate Change poses major challenges in the economy, human life and wildlife and on environment thereby affecting Kenya’s social and economic development. While Kenya’s contribution to the Green House Gases (GHGs) is minimal in comparison to developed countries, it is adversely affected by effects of Climate Change. There is need to develop appropriate detection, prediction, adaption and mitigation measures to reduce the negative impact of the adverse effects, which the plan maps out.

The negative impact of drought on the economy has been a recurring. Droughts have resulted in the loss of vegetation cover that reduces available forage that supports human and animal life. The consequence has been high animal mortality, famine and lack of drinking water. In addition, droughts have lead to power and water rationing in major urban centres and pastoralist communities have suffered loss of livelihoods as a result of droughts, Whilst significant progress has been made in drought management, but efforts to address drought-related problems have not yet fully succeeded there is need for institutionalizing a well-established drought management strategy. Drought management will continue to be a vital policy in addressing poverty in not only Arid and Semi-Arid Areas (ASALs) but also other affected districts in the agricultural based districts.

The sector plan will take into account gender balance and the role of youth and women will be promoted in all strategies and programmes and also continue to ensure that Kenya will make steady progress towards realigning MDGs in water, sanitation, public health and availability of clean water to Kenyan homes.

Inadequate institutional capacity and low level of environment, water and sanitation education in the country are some of the factors that contribute to low enforcement of policies and regulations. Legal and institutional reforms as well as harmonization of sectoral statutes are important in strengthening governance in the sector. Completion of various draft legislations, policies and institutional changes in the subsectors will be prioritized. Altogether, the measures adopted by the Government in these sectors under environment, water and sanitation are expected to help the country advance towards the goals of Vision 2030 and the MDGs in 2015.

The Environment, Water and Sanitation Sector Plan identifies the programmes and projects that will be implemented in the Plan period 2008-2012 to address to the various challenges facing the sector. The Plan aims are ensuring that environment, water and sanitation sector policies are integrated into programmes and project development through involvement of a wide spectrum of stakeholders and building and strengthening of partnerships. It also aims at ensuring that the people of Kenya live and work in a clean and secure environment. The major challenges facing this sector include environmental degradation, decreasing forest cover, deteriorating water and air quality, solid waste management, Climate Change and Global Warming. Other challenges facing this sector include unsustainable farming practices, alien and invasive species. The Environment Sector forms the bedrock of productive sectors and is key to poverty reduction and improvement of livelihoods. The achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and attainment of the aspirations of Vision – 2030 is therefore closely linked to the successful implementation of programs and projects identified in this Plan.

Environmental degradation has huge economic cost and it is estimated that the losses at the national scale amount to about 3% of GDP (about 390M US Dollars). Pollution and waste management are some of the leading environmental health problems in the country affecting both rural and urban populations, as a result of high rate of population growth and industrialization . Another major challenge is the need for a review of Millennium Development Goal number 7 to adapt it to specific national environmental goals with attainable measurable targets and indicators which will support systems for early warning on environmental changes. Climate change poses a serious challenge to social and economic development. While Kenya’s contribution to the Green House Gases (GHGs) is minimal in comparison to developed countries, it is adversely affected by effects of Climate Change. There is need to modernize the detection and prediction monitoring infrastructure that will help in strengthening attribution and draw scenario for developing appropriate adaption and mitigation strategies to reduce the negative impact of the adverse effects. In addition, the country needs climate change response policy and related, Laws and national strategy. The country possesses substantial untapped mineral resources that remain largely underexplored making the sub-sector contribution to the GDP only about 1%. To date close to 20% which represent 110,000 Sq Kms remain geologically unmapped and little is known about geological setting and mineral potential of the areas. The Government will intensify geological mapping and mineral exploration in those areas and at the same time finalize the creation of an enabling fiscal and legislative framework in order to attract investment in the mining sub-sector. Institutional arrangements will be strengthened to effective management of the environment.

Climate Change: Climate Change poses major challenges in the economy, human life and wildlife and on environment thereby affecting Kenya’s social and economic development. While Kenya’s contribution to the Green House Gases (GHGs) is minimal in comparison to developed countries, it is adversely affected by effects of Climate Change. There is need to develop appropriate, detection , prediction , adaption and mitigation measures to reduce the negative impact of the adverse effects.

Drought Management: Droughts have resulted in the loss of vegetation cover that reduce available forage that supports human and animal life. The consequence has been high animal mortality, famine and lack of drinking water. In addition, droughts have lead to power and water rationing in major urban centres and pastoralist communities have suffered loss of livelihoods as a result of droughts, Whilst significant progress has been made in drought management, but efforts to address drought-related problems have not yet fully succeeded there is need for institutionalizing a well-established drought management strategy. Drought management is vital to addressing poverty in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas (ASALs).

Water Pollution

The quality of water has deteriorated over time due to increased commercial farming activities and use of agro-chemicals, rapid industrialization and inadequate enforcement of environmental regulation and policies. The restoration and rehabilitation of river basins is the key to addressing water pollution and delivery of clean water to households for both domestic and livestock use.

As a priority Water Resources Management will ensure that water is conserved, preserved, protected and availed in such quality and quantity to sustain the various national demands. Sustainable utilization, development and management of water resources fundamentally underpin the achievement of long-term socio economic goals. It’s important to note that, access to adequate and reliable supply of water is a key input to poverty reduction and an important element for social stability and economic growth as well as meeting the targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Vision 2030. Hence the Government is fully committed to improving the management and protection of water resources to ensure that water is available for equitable allocation for all the demands in the country.

Low Irrigation Development
The level of development of irrigation in Kenya is low compared to its potential. Kenya’s irrigation potential in 2008 was estimated at 539,000 hectares, but only 114,600 hectares (about 20 per cent of irrigable land) have been exploited for agricultural production. However, with the construction of water storage facilities, the available irrigated land could be increased to 1.3 million hectares. This could be achieved through enhanced water storage capacity, thereby increasing agricultural production. This would also help control floods, which mainly affect poor communities.

Forestry
The forest sub-sector plays a vital role in protection of water catchment areas, conservation of bio-diversity and provision of forest products in the country. The current closed canopy forest cover is 1.7% or 1.24 million Hectares against the internationally recommended cover of 10%. Strengthening of forest governance structures by involvement of communities and other stakeholders will be enhanced to address this problem. The target will be met by improving plantation forestry promoting farm and dryland forestry with the overall objective of raising the tree forest cover to about 4% by 2012 and to 10% by 2030.The increase in forest cover will help conserve the environment, protect water catchments, control desertification and generally increase agricultural production and food security and improve people’s livelihoods.

Shared Water Resources
Water is one of the most shared resources and any policies and interventions in the water sector often have implications on the trans-boundary management of the resource. It therefore behoves the Ministry to play a leading role in the formulation of policies and conventions that are likely to impact on the shared waters in which Kenya has interest, especially trans-boundary lakes, rivers, and aquifers. In this regard it may be noted that the Nile Treaty that governed the use of the Nile Waters is under negotiations.

Kenya has no control over what happens to the shared water resources on the side of its neighbouring countries. Trans-boundary issues like, the Ethiopian side constructing dams that starve Lake Turkana of its water sources, in Ugandan side of Lake Victoria, the dams are expanded for hydro electric power generation, furthermore each country has different regulatory regimes covering aspects of issues diverse as water use to effluent discharge. A major challenge which the Ministry faces is ensuring that the country's national interests are safeguarded in successor framework agreements developed

Wild life

Wildlife has an intrinsic environmental value, as well as its present and potential revenue generation, contributing 75% of the 10% earnings in GDP from Tourism activities. Kenya’s wildlife is one of the richest and most diversified in Africa, with several of its protected areas and wetlands internationally renowned as World Heritage Sites and RAMSAR sites. Protected areas have long been seen as successful in conservation of wildlife and environmental sustainability. Wildlife covers an area of about 8% of Kenya’s landmass. The major concern in wildlife is the loss of corridors, habitat degradation, security, seasonability of tourism and infrastructure.

The sector plan will take into account gender balance and the role of youth and women will be promoted in all strategies and programmes.

Legal/Institutional Framework: Inadequate institutional capacity and low level of environment, water and sanitation education in the country are some of the factors that contribute to low enforcement of policies and regulations. Legal and institutional reforms as well as harmonization of sectoral statutes are important in strengthening governance in the sector. Completion of various draft legislations, policies and institutional changes in the subsectors will be prioritized.This sill support innovative partnership arrangements like the Private-Public Partnerships for enhanced environmental management.
1.0 INTRODUCTION

This sector plan has been prepared through a sector wide approved (SWAP) consultative process involving various stakeholders in the Environment, Water and Sanitation Sector. The plan is limited to the medium term expenditure framework (MTEF) budget process and the Kenya Development Blue print vision 2030.

The plan outlines priority programmes and projects to be implemented in the first 5 – years period (2008/2012) of Kenya Vision 2030 and the associated indicative budgetary levels.

The Environment, Water and Sanitation sector forms the bedrock for a clean, secure and sustainable environment for the citizenry by promoting the quality of the country’s environment and natural resources. The sector further forms critical linkages between environment and the main productive sectors.

The overall sectoral objective of attaining sustainable development and management will be achieved through targeted activities that aim at economic, ecological and equity. By the end of the plan period the Government has projected economic growth of an average rate of 10% by the year 2012. This growth will be dependent on agriculture, forestry, tourism, manufacturing and the energy sector, which heavily rely on use of natural resources and the environment.

Sound environmental conservation results in preservation of natural resources, thus assuring continuous supply of environmental goods and services. In addition, proactive management of the environment pre-empts calamities and disasters which would otherwise have serious socio-economic implications. Development activities and increased human population pose major challenges on environment and natural resource management, such as increased pollution levels and waste management challenges. In line with the country’s global commitment towards the sustainable development objective, targeted socio-economic development initiatives towards the Vision 2030 targets will take into account environmental considerations.

Climate Change leads to major challenges in the economy, human life and environment and is a threat to Kenya’s social and economic development. Despite the fact that Kenya’s contribution to Green House Gases (GHGs) is minimal compared to developed countries; it is affected by adverse effects of Climate Change. The adverse effects are severe as they affect the productive sectors of the economy such as agriculture, livestock, tourism, forestry, fisheries, and wildlife. Climate change is equally associated with emergence and re-emergence of diseases of public health concern e.g. viral haemorrhagic fever (RVF), cholera, malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, typhoid, avian flu, among others. These changes affect women and youth adversely in comparison to the rest of the population and specific targeted programs should be developed to address specific needs of women and youth in changing climate.
For a country that is over-dependent on rain-fed agricultural production, periodic extreme weather events, including cyclic droughts and floods results in massive crop failure, livestock loses. The two also result in land degradation in terms of soil erosion and food shortages particularly in the ASAL areas of the country which exacerbates the over-exploitation of natural resources. The Arid and Semi-Arid areas, rangelands as well as areas currently under threat from land degradation and desertification are particularly vulnerable to this over-exploitation. In order to sustain high growth levels, it is necessary to first pursue sound resource management policies and second to adopt appropriate measures to address adverse effects of climate change. There is therefore need to develop adaptation and mitigation measures to counter the adverse effects of Climate Change in order to reduce their impact on environment. Adaptive options include control of deforestation, improved rangeland management, expansion of protected areas and sustainable management of forests. The Government has established a National Climate Change Secretariat based in the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources to address matters on climate change and the same is being strengthened.
1.1 Linkages

Water is an environmental resource necessary not only to support life but also sustain economic activities across different sectors. The country faces enormous challenges in the development and management of limited water resources. Furthermore, the magnitude and severity of the water crisis cut across most sectors of the economy thus making water resources management a high priority that requires urgent attention. The entire productive sector will depend on the availability of water both in the natural state and as services. In order to improve the availability of the water management of water catchments, pollution control, and water resource monitoring to ensure equitable supply of the water resources will be enhanced. The challenges of providing water services efficiently and affordably will require investment in physical infrastructure and institutional capacity. Legal and institutional frameworks are in place to meet these challenges.

About 42 per cent of GDP is derived from natural resource-based sectors.Under Vision 2030; emphasis will be in development, promotion and improvement of irrigated agriculture through sustainable exploitation of available irrigation and drainage potential in Kenya. The productivity in the proposed irrigated areas will have benefits on the future of Kenya’s economy and society that go beyond increasing agricultural production and value addition. Kenya is endowed with vast wetlands along river valleys, shore of lakes, estuaries and swamps. Some of these such us the Tana River Delta, and Lake Naivasha are already classified as Ramsar sites.

Wetlands have vast ecological and economic importance. Ecologically they are a home for unique fauna and flora, store and act as buffers for water especially during the dry seasons. Economically, they are a source of food and are associated with wildlife habitats. These fragile ecosystems are highly vulnerable due to anthropogenic activities (settlement, agriculture) and are usually targeted for draining and sprayed with chemicals for being perceived as habitats for disease vectors. The Government will fast track formulation of a National Wetland Policy to guide sustainable use and management.

Sanitation and waste management are closely related to human health. The challenges of addressing problems of sanitation and waste management have been compounded by rising population, improvement in standard of living, and high rural urban migration which is responsible for the development of densely populated informal settlements in urban and pry-urban areas with poor sanitation facilities. Pollution and waste management is exacerbated by dumping of waste into rivers, streams and other water bodies coupled with inadequate strategies leading to serious health implications.

The forestry sub-sector is important in providing several goods and services and hence relevant for national development. The sub-sector provides utility products (timber, poles, fuel wood, and pulp wood); a variety of non-wood products (resin, honey, medicine); and is critical for the conservation of biological diversity, water and soil; and is a major habitat for wildlife. However as in many other countries, Kenya’s official statistics do not accurately reflect the extent of forest resources and their contribution to the environmental and socio-economic sectors in the country. Availability of water is strongly influenced by forests as water catchments areas. The role forests play as a source of water critical for domestic and industrial use and more importantly for provision of hydro-electric power is completely underestimated yet 70% of the electricity production in the country is hydro underpinning the importance of protecting and managing the watersheds.

Wildlife forms a critical component in tourism which is a major foreign exchange earner and contributes about 10% to the GDP making the third contributor to GDP after agriculture and manufacturing. The resources therefore associated with wildlife will be significant in the sector development initiatives. Various strategies including development of resort cities, diversification of the tourism products and development and upgrading of infrastructural structures will be a major focus.

Mining and mineral resources is one area which promises growth and has the potential for development and opening up remote communities in which mining activities are carried out. Although its contribution to GDP is about 1% this will change immensely and increase the sub-sector’s contribution to about 3% of GDP once the proposed legislative framework which, aims at reducing discretionary powers to the licensing authorities and provide greater security of tenure for investors, is put in place.

The Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) represent over 80% of the total land mass of the country have been marginalized and largely under-utilized. The creation of the Ministry of Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands is in itself recognition by the government that the region has not enjoyed equitable development at the same pace as the rest of the country.

As highlighted in Vision 2030 Land Reform will be one of the foundations on which the economic, social and political pillars will be achieved. The land reform will address the issues of land administration, access to land, land use planning, environmental degradation, conflicts, unplanned proliferation of informal urban settlements, outdated legal framework, institutional frame work and information management. This will be spearheaded by the National Land Policy.

Issues of gender particularly the youth and women will be prioritized as the sector reforms take place. Representation of all gender will be taken into account as governance structures for management of natural resources are created. Creation of employment opportunities and participation in environmental management will be integrated in sector programmes and strategies

Sustainable development principles define acceptable behavior for utilization of natural resources that guide good environmental practices and conservation. This calls for developing action plans which consider social, economic and environmental issues, with a view to reducing poverty, enhancing equity and generating wealth for present and future generations.

The Government of Kenya embraced the idea of linking environmental concerns to development planning following the Earth Summit meeting in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. One of the Summit’s outcomes was Agenda 21, a global action plan. The Rio convention recommended the integration of environmental concerns into the development and planning processes through National action plans such as the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP). It similarly recognized the need to manage the environment for current and future generations and introduced the concept of ‘sustainability’ in environmental management. This necessitated considerations of the social, economic and environmental impacts of management practices. The development of various policies, legal and institutional reforms in various sectors became necessary in this paradigm shift in environmental management.

The Kenya Government’s commitment in this regard has been articulated in various policy documents such as the Sessional Paper no. 6 of 1999 on environment and development, the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERS 2003-2007) and the Poverty Eradication Strategy. The country is also signatory to various multilateral and bilateral environmental agreements. The inclusion of the private sector and the donor community in the planning process through consultative forums is further testimony of the Government’s commitment.

Environmental issues are closely linked to other sectors in the economy such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), planning and overall development, population dynamics, finance, public health and sanitation, trade etc. On this basis the management of the environment and natural resources has assumed a global significance with clearly instituted management and governance structures. This issue has become more current following the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Environmental action planning is a multi disciplinary, multi stakeholder and multi- sectoral participatory process.

The ministries and related semi-autonomous organizations within the sector have functional overlaps which are symptomatic of the general Government structure. Following the introduction of the MTEF budgetary process, and subsequently the result based management systems introduced in the Government in the recent past; the need for collaborations in areas of functional overlaps has become more critical. This has been achieved though memorandums of understandings, joint projects, and data sharing mechanisms.

Some of the newly formed Semi Autonomous Government Agencies (SAGAs) have actually sprung up in response to the need for institutions to clearly define their niches of operations, thereby reducing unnecessary overlaps. For instance, the Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA) has been formed to manage the entire spectrum of water resources inclusive of underground and surface waters. This mandate is certainly shared to an extent with the Kenya Forest Service (KFS) that is charged with forest management, the forests being critical water catchments areas. The Environmental management and coordination Act (EMCA), the Water Act, the Forest Act, the Wildlife Act and other policy documents relating to the sector, have provided clear management guidelines for the same. The general aim of most of these management instruments is to embrace the stakeholder inclusivity concept. This has necessitated the formations of several user groups and associations, in most cases, at the grass root levels. Data collected by relevant agencies within the sector is further used for development planning and policy direction.

Even though complete success has not been achieved, the Government budgetary process whereby resource envelopes are allocated though a competitive process, has served to improve resource allocation. The MTEF which is a major feature of the budgetary process has similarly made significant attempts to link policy, planning and development activities. The development partners have been very integral to general program implementation strategies through the donor consultation forums. In the Environment sector, for instance, they have among others, spearheaded the process of functional analysis whose aim was to fine tune functional operations and resource allocations. Certain conditions imposed by the partners have also facilitated stakeholder involvement and synergies in project implementation.
1.2 Situation Analysis

This section analyses the situation in various sub-sectors.

1.2.1 Environment

The environment for the bedrock of productive sectors and is key to poverty reduction and socio-economic development. Limited mainstreaming of environment in productive sectors remains a major challenge for sustainable development. Lack of harmonized synergies to promote best practices and partnerships has hampered effectiveness of the environment sectors in supporting national development. Accelerated environment al degradation, has catalyzed conflicts over access and ownership of environmental resources. A review of environmental situation by the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources published as “Kenya Atlas of Our Changing Environment” has shown massive degradation of the environment over the last four decades. Environmental hotspots which include extensively degraded water catchment areas, urban environments loaded with decades of piled waste, poor quality air and general living environment calls for increased investment in environmental rehabilitation, restoration and reversal of further degradation to ensure sustainable development.

Climate change has emerged as the most evident impact of environmental degradation. AS human induced phenomena, climate change calls for multi-sectoral partnerships in tackling the negative impacts which have included scarcity of energy, water, food and general community conflicts over environmental resources. Such scarcity which are cyclically linked to poverty and poor quality environment have unacceptable manifestation on quality of life of women and the youth.

Whereas the Environment Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) of 1999 was enacted to improve the coordination and management of the environment, harmonization with other sectoral policies, related legislation, regulations and guidelines are not yet complete. Institutional reforms for effective enforcement poses a big challenge to attainment of the social pillar of Vision 2030.

1.2.2 Forestry

The forest sector is important in nationationl development and is projected to growat 7% annually . Presently State forests cover some 1.24 million hectares or about 1.7% of the country’s land area. Out of this 120,000 ha. Are industrial exotic plantations which supply wood materials to the forest based industries. (Pulp and paper, ply wood, fibre board, timber and poles) In addition the country has 9.3 million ha. under agroforestry cover. A further 37.6 million ha. is covered by woodlands and bushlands in the Asals. The sector is also closely intertwined with the country’s socio- economic development as a large proportion of the population both in the rural and urban areas directly depend on forest goods and services for livelihood. The sector plays a crucial role in the achievement of sustainable development of the country and attainment of the Vision 2030. These reforms need to be implemented in order to achieve sustainable management of the environment and natural resources. Nevertheless, the sector is constrained by the increased demand for forest products and services due to the ever increasing population that has continued to impact pressure on the country’s forest resources. This pressure has been most severe on the country’s five critical water towers (Mt. Kenya, Mau, Mt. Elgon, Chelangani and Aberdares). The water towers are covered by natural forests which hold some of the most significant biodiversity in the country.

The majority of the population in Kenya relies on forest resources for their energy requirements especially charcoal and firewood. Although charcoal is branded as “illegal” over eighty percent (80%) of the domestic energy consumption in the country is accounted for by wood-fuel. Further the charcoal industry contributes an estimated K.Shs.32million to the Kenyan economy annually. This represents lost tax revenue of at least K.Shs.5.1 billion which could be invested into making the industry sustainable. Yet there have been very little efforts to enhance efficiency and sustainability in the wood energy sector. The contribution of forestry in terms of non wood forest products (essensial oils, gums, resins, herbal, silk and honey) is however significant but is not yet fully developed. Forestry development in Kenya has mainly focused on wood based forest products at the expense of other high fibre and fast growing species like bamboo. There is need to focus on alternative species, and the Government shall diversify into the production of bamboo for industrial and household needs (blockboards, pulp, fibreboards, curtains, linen, carpets and food)
All these efforts are expected to enhance forest based carbon stocks to be traded under the United Nations Frame work convention on climate change. Besides acting as carbon sinks forest resources can greatly contribute to fisheries production through restocking of rivers and the enhancement of aquaculture. The country also has 60,000 ha. Of mangrove forest which are important for fish breeding and for the shoreline ecosystem.

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Though charcoal provides energy to rural and urban households its potential for national development has been underestimated. The Forest Act provides for the sustainable production, sale, purchase and transport of charcoal. At present this industry is place an estimated to generate Kshs 32 billion per year (which is equivalent to revenues accruing from tea production), for this reason the government will put in place an elaborate charcoal development programme by enacting the necessary legislation to guide the growth and management of the industry. Should the government legalize the industry under the new legislation framework, its annual tax revenue could be at least Kshs 5 billion. To prepare for this occurrence, KFS will elaborate a National Charcoal Development Programme in 2009 which will include formulation of subsidiary regulations and medium-term investment priorities.

The sector shall generate Kshs 3.64 billion per year from the sale of timber, fuel wood and poles. In addition, it provides 24 million cubic metres of fuel wood materials estimated at Kshs 4.8 billion from farmlands annually . Equally significantly the sector provides lively hoods for 600,000 people through wood carving across the country generating about Kshs 1.5 billion per year . Else where non-wood Forest Products play an important role in Kenya’s economy generating about Kshs 3.2 billion per year . Due the importance of Forestry products to the households the government will improve access and promote awareness and development of forestry through forestry extension in partnership with the private sector. The government will also advocate for alternative woodbased energy sources like coconuts, rice and coffee husks etc. It will also promote the use of energy saving technologies to minimize depletion of existing forestry resources.
1.2.3 Minerals

The geological mapping covering 80% of the country indicates great potential for mineral occurrence. The mining sub-sector accounts for about 1 per cent of the GDP and contributed about Kshs11 billion to the total national export earnings in 2008. Currently Kenya has a wide range of minerals such as soda ash, fluorspar, limestone, barite, gypsum, salt, dimension stones, silica sand, Kisii stone (soapstone), manganese, zinc, wollastonite, graphite, kaolin, iron ore, gold, diatomite, vermiculite, titanium, lead, nickel, carbon dioxide, chromite, pyrite, various clays, rare earth elements, phyrochore and a wide variety of gemstones. Despite the potential of the industry, it remains largely undeveloped hence appropriate policy and legislation supportive of investments in the industry and particularly small scale mining will be put in place. Owing to inadequate geological information and outdated legislation, the linkage to private sector has not worked well. As a result, only about four major and twenty other smaller companies are currently involved in mining activities in the country. The focus of the mining sub sector is now on further intensifying geological mapping and geo-data management to facilitate the understanding of the country’s geology, its associated hazards and exploitation of mineral resources. Areas of particular focus include geo-hazards mapping, setting up of a National Seismological Network, and modernization of mineral laboratories, core drilling and cartographic support services.

1.2.4 Water

Kenya suffers from water scarcity since demand outstrips the stock of renewable freshwater. The current water supply is inadequate with only 57 per cent of households using water from sources considered safe. There are disparities in urban water access with informal settlements recording lower levels. Surface water resources account for 86 per cent while ground water accounts for 14 per cent. Trans-boundary waters constitute 54 per cent of water resources in the country. A Nile Basin cooperative framework for management and development of the shared water resource is under preparation by the nine riparian countries. The government remains conscious and committed to trans-boundary water management frameworks aimed at enhancing the socio-economic development of the people. Likewise, strategies for inter-basin water transfer will be considered.

The average annual rainfall in Kenya varies from about 250 mm in the ASAL areas to 1800 mm in the Lake Victoria region. The country’s water endowment is also low and currently stands at 647 cubic metres per capita per year hence Kenya’s classification as a water scarce country. In recognition of the importance of sustainable management of water resources, the government initiated reforms in the sector through the enactment of the Water Act 2002. Further, the government, together with other riparian countries within the Nile Basin has developed the Nile Basin Cooperative framework for development and management of the shared water resources particularly Lake Victoria.

The available water is often inadequate for industrial, commercial, domestic as well as livestock and wildlife use. This scarcity has intensified competition among various users and often results to conflicts. Involvement of local communities in the management of water resources through formation of Water Resource Users Association (WRUAs) has resulted in reduced illegal abstractions, reduced catchments encroachment, rehabilitation of catchments areas and river bank protection. A positive outcome has been observed in River Ewaso Nyiro North which is flowing up to 110 km as opposed to previous flow of 40 km, and the flow is for a longer period of time.

Water is also a vital requirement in hydro-power generation as hydro-power accounts for 72 per cent of the country’s electrical power generation. Geothermal power production and its sustainability are largely dependent on natural ground water recharge. The government has implemented far reaching reforms in the Water sector within the legal framework provided by the Water Act 2002. Various water institutions have been established effectively separating the functions of policy formulation, service delivery and regulation of the water supply and sanitation and resources. In addition, Sector Wide Approach to Planning (SWAP) has been initiated aimed at improving coordination of the sector.

Due to the reforms that have been instituted in the sector the water services provision has steadily improved which needs to be sustained with increased investment in infrastructure rehabilitation and expansion. The present infrastructure is dilapidated and is leading to massive water loss in the form of uncounted for water (UFW).
1.2.5 Irrigation and Drainage

To achieve the goal of increasing the area under irrigation to 1.2 million hectares and to improve efficiency over the next five years, it will be necessary to finalise the policy, legal and institutional framework for irrigation and also develop a national irrigation master plan. This will indicate priority areas and also promote coordination of irrigation projects in the country in a manner that will empower communities and also allow private sector participation, where necessary. The existing schemes will, therefore, need to be rehabilitated and expanded while new ones are put in place. Empowering communities to manage their schemes and thereby increase productivity to optimum levels will achieve increasing the sustainability of irrigated and drained areas. Investment in human resource capacity development will be important to achieving this end.

Currently only 114,600 hectares (about 20 per cent of irrigable land) have beenutilized for agricultural production. It is therefore prudent to construct more water storage facilities towards increasing land area under irrigation. In addition, increase area under drainage to 90,000 hectares by 2012, and these facilities will contribute to flood control and reduce associated environmental costs that mainly impact heavily on the rural poor. In most areas where we have irrigation projects, we have had constant outbreaks of communicable diseases, sometimes reaching endemic magnitude. Eighty percent (80 %) of diseases reported in our rural areas are related to environmental health. Diarrheal diseases which are mainly waterborne are statistically ranked third (3rd ) among top ten diseases in Kenya. In order to prevent and control diarrhea, this Ministry carries out water quality surveillance, household water treatment at point of use, health promotion and education as recommended by WHO. Public health issues should be considered in the planning and execution ofirrigation projects to avoid breeding and spread of water based and water related diseases, like malaria, bilharzia and schistosomiasis.
1.2.6 Sanitation

The National Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene policy gives the basic policy framework in implementing sanitation and hygiene activities in Kenya. The School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) policy and guidelines emphasize specific issues that must be considered in school environments. Development of water supplies has not been matched by a corresponding increase in facilities of sanitary disposal of wastewater. As a result, wastewater is discharged into mainstream rivers, valley depressions and dams leading to high pollution levels. In addition, main sewer systems suffer from constant breakages and/or leakage due to increased discharge to fixed systems.

The national sanitation coverage increased from 45 per cent in 1990, to 48 per cent in 2006. Difference in access to adequate sanitation between urban and rural environments still persists, with the formally planned urban areas being better served than rural areas, and urban informal settlements. Approximately 80 per cent of the outpatient hospital attendance in Kenya is due to preventable diseases while 50 per cent of these are water, sanitation and hygiene related. Hygiene and sanitation are also major determinants of poverty, disproportionately affecting women and children.

Safe sanitation is critical to improvement of health of the population. The policy in implementation of all water supply project now lays emphasis on including sanitation components both rural and urban water supply.

Programmes designed to increase water and irrigation in the rural areas include Groundwater resources and Hydro geological Mapping in Turkana and Marsabit districts as well as strengthening water resources data and information for resource management Programmes to increase total volume of water through reduced encroachment to catchments areas and rehabilitation and protection of river basins will be implemented in the Plan period. Increase of water storage and harvesting for flood control will increase water supply in the rural areas. Construction of multi-purpose dams, rehabilitation/drilling of boreholes, development of 100 water pans and improvement of sanitation and improved environmental pollution are some of the programmes designed to increase water supply for domestic, livestock and irrigation in ASAL areas.

Trans-boundary water resources will be managed through collaboration with riparian countries and other initiatives to develop agreements for joint management of shared water resources.

The National Water Quality Monitoring Programme will map all pollution sources including sewage works, monitor and identify water quality, classify surface and ground water sources at least in one catchments area. Drinking water surveillance to ensure compliance with quality standards and improvement of water testing services are other programmes to be implemented in the Plan period. National mapping of fluoride concentration in groundwater and modernization of information, data capture and data processing will further strengthen water resources management.

Water Resources Management Authority is in the process of rehabilitating and expanding its river gauging stations and groundwater observation wells to improve water resources information for better planning and utilization. The authority is also monitoring water quality in the water bodies.
1.2.7 Information Services

The management of the environment and natural resources requires accurate empirical data. Within the environment and water sub-sector several agencies are purely involved in data generation that supports planning and development in various sectors.

The Department Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing (DRSRS), is involved in collecting data on land use/cover, Livestock wildlife population estimates, crop forecasting, land degradation, environmental monitoring, and establishing databases in these areas. Related thematic maps are some of the products.
The Meteorological Department is equally involved in the provision of weather and climate information that is essential to all sector of the economy including agriculture, environment and the aviation sectors among others.
1.2.8 Arid and Semi-arid Lands

Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands are home to 5 million Kenyans and 80% of Kenya’s livestock worth 10 billion Kenya Shillings. There are 24 million hectares that can be used for livestock production. In addition, there are 9.2 million hectares which have potential for crop production if irrigated; this irrigable land is equivalent to the total farmland in high and medium potential areas in the country.

Previous attempts to develop Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands have not borne much fruits as policies were not accompanied by adequate resource provisions. Adequate provision of resources will create viable incentives to pastoralists’ settlement in order to accelerate economic growth. The experience the government has in policy implementation in the 1990s shows the need to focus on creating an enabling environment in which people’s opportunities and incomes could be raised in order to widen choices. This could empower people to utilize their capacities and knowledge in order to improve their standard of living.

Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 on African Socialism and its Application to Planning in Kenya presented the framework for development and equity in Kenya, but it also presented great dilemma when it noted public investment would go to areas of highest potential returns and people most responsive to change. This approach favoured the former white highlands and marginalized areas like Northern Kenya and other arid Lands.

The other policies that were developed thereafter also did not effectively address the unique needs of the arid lands. Most of them were drafted with a degree of bias against pastoralism as a viable and sustainable way of life. Emphasis was put on sedentarization of nomadic pastoralists with a strong focus toward crop farming. Because such policies were mainly top-down, discriminative and un-consultative, they often failed, making ASALs to be considered generally unproductive and net consumers of the “national cake”.

Northern Kenya and other Arid Lands are home to 5 million Kenyans and 80% of Kenya’s livestock worth 10 billion Kenya shillings. There are 24 million hectares that can be used for livestock production and wildlife conservation. In addition, there are 9.2 million hectares which have potential for crop production if irrigated; this irrigable land is equivalent to the total farmland in high and medium potential areas in the country.

Basic primary health care services at community level are a basic need. High infant mortality rate, high malnutrition rate, high maternal mortality rate and outbreaks of diarrhoea diseases are quite common in Arid and Semi-Arid lands (ASAL) and occur at much higher rates than in other areas. To improve on the above, this Ministry is rolling out community strategy to scale up sanitation activities in Asal districts

1.2.9 Wildlife

Kenya is a mega-biodiversity state with its biodiversity hoisted in its various habitats and ecosystems. The latter include forests, grasslands, wetlands, coral reefs and mangroves among others. Most of Kenya’s biodiversity are also found within protected areas which comprise these habitats and ecosystems. Species loss and management of protected areas remain significant challenges. Kenya has over time lost some of her well known biodiversity resources mainly due to population increase; habitat destruction, desertification, over exploitation of species and conversion through deforestation, drainage of wetlands for agriculture and settlement, poaching due to lack of proper patent regulation.

Kenya’s wildlife is one of the most diversified in Africa, with several of its protected areas and wetlands internationally renowned as World Heritage Sites and RAMSAR sites. .Kenya Wildlife Service controls approximately 8% of the total landmass of the country comprising 22 terrestrial national parks, 4 marine national parks, 28 terrestrial national reserves, 6 marine national reserves and 5 national sanctuaries. In addition to this, KWS currently controls 125 game stations outside protected areas. The rest is found in other areas where wildlife conservation is designated as the principal land use system. These include over 20 community sanctuaries and private conservancies spread all over the country. There are other areas which have high potential but are yet to be exploited. Within these protected areas are found a variety of infrastructural developments such as lodges, campsites, airstrips etc.

Tourism is the second largest contributor to Kenya’s economy. The industry’s strength is mainly based on Kenya’s natural attractions, which include wild game. These wildlife resources managed by KWS are the backbone of the tourism industry in Kenya. KWS accounts for 90% of Safari Tourism and about 75% of total tourist earnings. Tourism industry accounts for 21% of total foreign exchange earnings and 12% of the Country’s GDP. The economic survey of 2005 shows that, earnings from tourism rose to KShs 39.2b in the year 2004-2005. The sector was forecast to grow at an estimated rate of between 4.5% and 5%.

Within these protected areas there is high potential of revenue generation in bio prospecting (eg in microbes, pharmaceuticals, natural products) filming, bird shooting and research collaboration. Most of Kenya’s water for dometic use and hydro power generation originates from the protected areas. Regulated game farming should be promoted. There is however need put mechanisms for protection of wild life outside the reserve areas. The habitats and the marine ecosystems are a major source of the carbon sinks.
Kenya is a signatory to various environmental conventions and protocols in which KWS is the designated national authority for some. These conventions and protocols call for domestication of policy recommendations, strengthening of regional, national and local institutions, public/community participation and development of funding mechanisms to manage the environment and natural resources. The wildlife authority compliments national security. It is also the lead agency under the Kenya Roads Board for development and maintenance of roads in the parks and reserves. The major concern in wildlife is the rapid decline in population, both in and outside protected areas. Since 1977, the country has lost 60-70% of large wildlife and the annual decline of wildlife is currently estimated at 3% with some species like rhinos, the Hirola antelopes, and the dungongs being endangered.

Natural Disasters and Climate Change: Kenya is characterized by a number of natural disasters which affect the pace of economic growth and destroy the assets of the poorest segments of the population in affected areas, reducing them to a state of dependency sometimes for a long period of time. Living in fragile environments, experiencing natural hazards, changing climatic conditions and unpredictable seasons are common especially in the ASAL areas. Poor people use a range of coping mechanisms and survival strategies in the face of disasters,But their capacities to mitigate and recover from disasters is often constrained by the wide policy and institutional context in relation to their social and economic status.

1.2.10 Youth and Environment

The World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002 approved the world programme of Action on Youth and recommended mainstreaming of environmental education in school curricula and training programmes as well as strengthening the participation of young people in the preservation, protection and improvement of environment.

The youth’s forms about 14 million of the total population of 33 million people. About 60% of the total numbers of the youth remain unemployed. This has been aggravated by the high tendency of the youths to look upon white collar job as the only work they can venture into. This places them in an awkward situation which makes them not yearn to explore the opportunities available within our environment. Due to this fact there is need to educate our youth to understand the dignity of work. The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports engage youth in exploring the opportunities available from within our environment and educate them on environmental issues they can address to have a sustainable environment as mentioned in the National Youth Policy (2007).

Innovative communication approaches and concepts like “Green Communication” will be applied to educate the youth in the importance of environmental stewardship and employment opportunities in nature-based enterprises. Key to this will be promotion of change of attitude and behavior towards positive environmental stewardship in leaning institutions and community programs as part of education for sustainable development.

2.0 CHALLENGES AND OTHER EMERGING ISSUES

The major challenges under Environment, Water and Sanitation sector include environmental degradation; decreasing forest cover, deterioration of water quality and quantity; pollution and waste management; impacts of Climate change and Global Warming; inadequate adoption of bio-technology and lack of an integrated environmental planning strategy towards attaining the sustainable development objective. Underlying all these challenges is the need to reform and introduce, where necessary, policy and institutional reforms that will enhance the attainment of comprehensive management of the environment and related resources.
2.1 Environmental management

Environmental governance in Kenya suffers from conflicting polices, laws and overlapping institutional mandates. This situation scenario not only leads to waste of resources but also hampers effective and accountable delivery of services.
2.1.1 Environmental Degradation
The quality of land in the country is generally declining due to unsustainable farming practices, effects of Climate Change, land degradation, , pollution and toxicity from agro-chemicals and alien and invasive species (e.g. Ipomea kituiensils, Prosopis juliflora, and water hyacinth). Soil erosion is the main form of land degradation and is most prevalent in ASALs. This is due to the fragile ecosystems and overstocking although it also occurs in the high potential areas where inappropriate agricultural techniques are practiced. The magnitude and distribution of soil erosion hazards in Kenya is influenced by rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, gradient of the land and soil cover. Soil erosion reduces soil fertility and has implications on land productivity, livestock carrying capacity, water quantity and quality, and fuel wood availability. Land degradation has huge economic costs. It is estimated that the losses at the national scale amount to USD 390 million annually or about 3 per cent of GDP.

. As such, any work on land and drought management must be based on an understanding of the natural resource base, the production systems and the use of simple, widely replicable management responses. Environmental degradation needs to be mitigated through sustainable management of the environment and related resources. In most cases, the management of these resources is in the hands of the men folk. This needs to be addressed through gender mainstreaming. There is a cyclic link between environmental degradation and poverty, so mitigative actions on degradation will also alleviate poverty. Thus the MDG goals on gender equity, environmental sustainability and poverty alleviation can be captured through this strategy.
2.1.2 Land use/Tenure issues

The current land use practices and associated land tenure issues have gained more prominence due to frequent resource use conflicts. This has also made the issue of the development of a national Land Use Policy an urgent issue. The absence of a national land use policy has meant that we have a fluid mix of state, private and communal land sometimes in close proximity thereby leading to resource use conflicts.

The immediate result of these conflicts includes poverty increase, environmental degradation and economic losses. The provision of Communal land ownership, has at times led to the ‘tragedy of the commons’ whereby environmental goods and services have been viewed as common goods requiring no individual responsibility. This has at times, resulted into environmental degradation.

2.1.3 Population increase

Despite steps taken to stabilize human population, Kenya’s population has showed a steady increase and is projected to continue increasing over the Plan period. The population patterns display in-migrations from the high potential areas to arid and semi-arid areas as well as from rural areas into urban areas. In non-urban areas, the human population increases have been compounded with increased livestock populations with the net consequences of intense resource use competitions, conflicts, environmental degradation, and poverty. Within the urban areas, this has caused challenges in provision of services such as roads, water, sanitation, pollution- free air etc. In the wildlife protected areas it has seen increased human-wildlife conflict. It is therefore logical to assume that the solutions of problems in the sector that have a population root will require parallel strategies in managing population dynamics.
Human population has increased pressure on environmental resources and services leading to unsustainable exploitation and consequent degradation..

2.1.4 Pollution and Waste Management

Pollution and poor waste management are some of the leading environmental health problems in the country affecting both rural and urban populations. Other forms of pollution include noise and air pollution which must be managed to create a healthy and habitable environment ; particularly in high density settlement areas. Projects in mineral development sector which involve exploration, mining, transportation and processing of minerals and construction materials also contribute to pollution. All mining methods involve some form of disturbance on the surface of the underlying strata, including aquifers. Exploration and pre-development impacts are usually short term and include: surface disturbance; airborne dust; noise and emission from drilling equipment operations; disturbance of soil and vegetation, streams, drainages, wetlands, cultural or historic resources, and underground aquifers; and conflict with other land uses.

Both surface and underground mining involve the following: drainage of the mine area and discharge of mine waters; the removal and storage disposal of large volumes of waste material; and the removal and processing of the ore or construction material.
2.1.5 Climate Change

Kenya’s economic sustenance is dependent principally on agriculture, fisheries, forestry, tourism and agro-based industries, a situation that makes it very sensitive to climate change.
There exists overwhelming evidence of climate change in Kenya, and one of the apparent signals is the rapid and drastic disappearance of glacier on Mount Kenya, with scientists projecting that the ice cap on the mountain could disappear by the year 2020. In addition, the country’s lakes are experiencing serious declines in water levels. Similar drastic changes have been observed in volumes of river flows. This eminent water scarcity therefore poses a serious challenge to the country’s economic development, as geothermal power production and its sustainability, for example, is largely dependent on natural water recharge. Mining and quarrying activities do also contribute to climate change through the emission of green house gases (GHGs)from heavy diesel equipment and truck operations.

Formulating specific strategies for climate change remains a major challenge in the country. However, some of the strategies adopted by the Government include:

 The development of fast growing or early maturing crops in the field of agriculture.
 Early warning mechanisms for drought and food strategic reserves in the field of environment and agriculture respectively.
 Disaster preparedness through various strategies.
 Strategic marketing of livestock within the Asals.
 Provision of water to both livestock and wildlife through artificial pans and boreholes.
 Thrust in Water harvesting as has been done by the Nairobi city council through housing by laws
 Soil and water conservation strategies promoted by the Government and NGOs.
 Diversification of varieties and species in both the livestock and agricultural sectors
 Further support to research and development to come up with the foregoing species and variesties suitable to drought conditions.

The Ministry of Planning and National Development and Vision 2030 together with the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources will need to upscale the process that will translate the scientific information on climate changes into a strategy that will inform the development policy process. Without this national climate change strategy, it will be difficult to achieve all the targets of Vision 2030 if action to adapt to climate change and mitigate against it are not put in place while at the same time enhancing the resilience of the poor majority.

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2.2 Water Resources

Kenya is classified as a water scarce country. Water is an environmental resource necessary not only to support life but also to sustain economic activities across different sectors. The average annual rainfall varies from about 250 mm in ASAL areas to 1800 mm in the Lake Victoria region.

In recognition of the importance of sustainable management of water resources, the Government initiated reforms in the sector through enactment of Water Act 2002. The Public Health Act, Cap 242, the Food, Drugs and Chemical Substance Act Cap 254, the Education Act Cap 211, the Building Code, the Factories and Other Places of Work Act Cap 514 equally address water, sanitation and hygiene issues. The key challenges facing this sector include:
2.2.1 Water Scarcity

Renewable fresh water per capita stands at 647 cubic meters and is projected to fall to 235 cubic meters by 2025 if supply does not keep up with population increase. There are also regional imbalances in water availability and utilization that must also be addressed. Highland areas, the Coast and the Lake Region have better water access than the ASAL districts. The state of existing water supply system will be upgraded to address the high unaccounted for water (currently estimated at 50 %) and improve customer satisfaction especially in urban areas. The distances to the nearest water points pose a challenge particularly to women and girls who bear the responsibility of fetching water. Most time is spent on this activity hence compromising the girls’ education and time for other productive activities for the women.
2.2.2 Water Security

Provision of water throughout the year presents a major challenge. Inadequate water harvesting is responsible for regional imbalance in water security with some parts of the country having a lot of water during rainy seasons and little or no water during dry periods. The challenges are further compounded by extreme climatic changes that cause flooding and immense negative impact on both the social and economic fronts.
2.2.3 Water Catchments Management

Deforestation has caused severe degradation of the country’s main water towers. This has led to reduced flows in a number of rivers and lowering of water levels in the lakes thereby disrupting water and electricity supply.

Formulation of guidelines and code of practice for groundwater investigation, drilling and test pumping, construction of dams and boreholes with long life-span, protection of water catchments areas and ground water artificial recharge in five drainage basins is aimed at improving water catchments management.
2.2.4 Water quality

The quality of water has deteriorated overtime due to a number of factors such as increased commercial farming activities, rapid industrialization and laxity in law enforcement. In most cases effluents and chemical waste from various sources are discharged directly into water bodies.
2.2.5 Infrastructure Development

Poor physical planning in urban areas, coupled with the proliferation of unplanned settlements, is challenge to the provision of safe drinking water. As stated earlier, water coverage will be increased through investment in infrastructure, rehabilitation and construction of new water supplies and more efficient management of available water. In addition, an estimated 60 per cent of water is unaccounted for. This problem will be addressed under the Medium Term Plan.

Water Resources Management Authority is in the process of rehabilitating and expanding its river gauging stations and groundwater observation wells to improve water resources information for better planning and utilization. The authority is also monitoring water quality in the water bodies.

2.2.6 Irrigation and Drainage

A significant proportion of Kenya’s land surface is unsuitable for agricultural production due to the extremes of aridity in some areas and swampy conditions in others. More land could be reclaimed for agricultural use through development of irrigation infrastructure in the ASALs and reclaiming the waterlogged soils in the swampy areas. In addition, there is need to improve water availability and quality for human and livestock use.

It is estimated that intensified irrigation can increase agricultural productivity 4-fold and depending on the crops; incomes can be multiplied 10-times.Experience from smallholder schemes in Mwea, Ahero, Bunyala, Turkana, Baringo and Garissa attests to the potentiality of irrigation to transform lives of smallholder farmers. This experience is also demonstrated in other districts and countries where irrigation is a major driver of agricultural productivity. Some water deficit countries have proved that co-ordinated development and utilization of irrigation does transform economic development

Funding of irrigation and drainage has continued to grow over the period 2003-2007. As a result, most of the districts have implemented an average of two projects per year. For example 87 new schemes constructed increasing the area under irrigation by 8,200 ha; 16 irrigation schemes rehabilitated; 131 new irrigation and drainage schemes identified; 12,409 irrigation farmers trained on irrigation water management; and 105 IWUAs formed
2.2.7 Monitoring of Resources

Currently, water resource monitoring covers only 30 per cent of the total estimated available supply. This constrains effective water resource planning and management. In the plan period, relevant capacity for monitoring trends in water flows and abstraction will be given priority.
Forestry Resources
2.3.0 Forestry Resources and challenges.

The Forest sub-sector plays a critical role in protection of water catchments, conservation of biodiversity and in provision of forest products in the country. The sub- sector is however threatened by numerous challenges like the increasing population and Kenya is now internationally considered to be a low cover forest country.

The remaining natural forests have also been degraded and the forests on the Kenya’s five water towers can no longer provide sustainable supply of water, raw materials and other services to meet the goal of Vision 2030. Further, trees on farmlands and in industrial plantations have also been over cut and there is widening gap between the supply and demand of forest products. Forestry sector also experiences low level public investment. Clearing of woodlands in dry areas for agriculture and charcoal production is another major cause of environmental degradation. The country should develop an incentive scheme to promote sustainable forest management and conservation.

Threats to the state forest reserves include among others change of land use, encroachment deforestation and forest degradation, excisions, over exploitation, illegal logging, wood poaching, charcoal burning and forest fires. Threats to the woodlands (trust lands) include conversion pressure and unsustainable charcoal production. The Kenya Forest Service is the institution mandated to lead on forestry issues and currently faces several critical challenges.
2.3.1 Forestry regulation and coordination

By its nature forestry is cross-cutting, and effective policy implementation will have an impact on a range of other sectors. As a new entity, the MFW’s immediate uptake of forestry responsibilities has been challenged due to major capacity constraints. The Ministry’s capacity is constrained in its role on forestry affairs, and often relies on KFS to deal with matters of forest policy development and sector coordination. Forestry as a sector remains extremely undervalued in terms of GDP contribution and is poorly mainstreamed within macro and sectoral plans. The proposed National Forest Policy has not yet been approved by Parliament and the document itself has not been widely disseminated to stakeholders. Knowledge of the Forest Act also remains the domain of very few; and the necessary subsidiary legislation and national standards are not in place to effectively enforce the Forest Act or compliance with standards. The KFMP remains technically relevant, although it suffers from or lacking a clear investment framework to attract finance into the sector. The Government will therefore work very closely with the private sector and the communities s to develop and implement a master Forestry Investment programme to sustain forestry production.
2.3.2 KFS institutional reforms

As an almost fully de-linked, semi-autonomous entity, the establishment period for KFS is at a critical juncture. The new KFS Board and management team are in dire need for additional support to make KFS function as a fully autonomous state corporation. Mechanisms to ensure the KFS can earn more from the forest resource (through e.g. plantation surveys, proper harvesting plans, market based pricing, marketing strategies, competitive concessioning and proper accounting and financial documentation) are all incomplete or in the process of a major overhaul.

Work on installing and utilizing management systems to support the new functions previously absent from the former Forest Department is a major effort that has only just begun. In order to do the things it wants and is indeed required to do, the KFS must have a competent and motivated work force; thus there is the additional challenge to recruit and train its new staff, and to retain them by offering adequate remuneration and good working conditions.
2.3.3 Logging ban (selective)

The current logging ban has put enormous pressure on sustainable management of the country’s forest resources.

The ban in natural forests was introduced in 1986 and another imposed on timber harvesting in plantations in 1999 prohibiting exploitation of timber in gazetted forests and forbids any cutting, including silvicultural thinning and pruning. As a result, close to 38,000 hectares of over-mature and mature industrial plantations in these forests, valued at more than Kshs 10 billion, are deteriorating. If the ban was removed, it would take close to 6 years to commercially thin the 18,000 hectares or so of planted forests between the ages 10 and 22 years, valued at about Kshs 3.5 billion. The ban was responsible for the closure of more than 300 sawmills and the loss of 30,000 direct and 100,000 indirect jobs. When tertiary services associated with the industry are considered, the impact on livelihoods and the economy is far greater. Investments of the timber industry alone, estimated to be more than Kshs 44 billion, was significantly reduced. Perhaps as importantly, the ban gave rise to a lucrative black market for timber, forcing KFS to shift scant resources from priorities such as plantation establishment and management to law enforcement. KFS has recently streamlined timber allocation systems and has pre-qualified saw millers. The forest sector stakeholders anxiously wait the lifting of the logging ban.

Lifting the man provides an opportunity for KFS to generate much needed revenue that if ploughed back can have a significant impact in achieving goals and sustainability of the parastatal and create opportunities for communities to participate and benefit in sustainable forest management.

Related to revenue generation is the exemption granted to some millers specifically Pan Paper Mills which owes KFS a lot of money and yet does not pay market rates. It is desired that market rates are paid for all forestry products without exceptions in order to enhance the government’s efforts to generate revenue through appropriate sales and taxation.

New approaches in forest management lay emphasis on Participatory Forest Management (PFM) and benefit sharing arrangements and these are areas where KFS has low expertise and capacity.
2.3.4 Participation of communities/private sector

The Forest Act recognizes the importance of community and private sector involvement in management and utilization of the forest reserves. However, the mechanisms for this (participatory forest management, concessions, and timber licenses) are yet to be developed or are in the early stages of implementation. The skills and capacity among KFS personnel for realizing the partnerships still needs to be enhanced, and the same applies to communities and the private sector (e.g. community forestry associations, sawmills, logging contractors, eco-tourism concessionaries). There is a need for capacity strengthening to fully engage the communities/private sector in the protection, management, and use of forests, as well as in taking up tree farming/woodland management as a commercial enterprise.

2.3.5 Need for development of bamboo industry

The development of the bamboo industry is undermined by negative pronouncements and less informed circulars. This industry can spur economic development by replacing a significant proportion of the raw wood materials . It is noted that for the industry to grow, Kenya should increase bamboo feedstocks along rivers, farmlands and in the natural forests. The present 150,000 ha of bamboo plantations can support a number of industries in the Eastern, central, South Rift and North Rift conservancies. It is anticipated that the local communities can grow feedstock while the private sector develops the relevant industry to consume the feedstock.
2.3.6 Farm and dry land forestry

At the farm and community level, the key problem identified is the lack of incentives for farmers and communities to invest in tree crops and non-wood forest products.

Further analysis shows that this is as a result of un-supportive land tenure arrangements whereby women, married sons, and the landless have limited access to land for either tree planting or management of naturally growing woodlands. The other part of the problem is the decreasing household land size as a result of population increase and subdivision of land and even ranches to the point where the size becomes uneconomical. Other limitations include inadequate knowledge and understanding of the tree enterprise; this lack of knowledge is linked to having predominantly supply driven research, ineffective extension services, and user un-friendly packaging of the relevant information on the available technologies. Well functioning markets could also stimulate production of almost any product. However, for the wood and NWFPs, both the supply side and the demand side of the market are disorganized, making it difficult for producers to know where to take their farm produce and for consumers to know where to purchase the desired products.
2.3.7 Forest Resource Assessment and Evaluation

In Kenya, only the protected forest is accounted for while acreage and resources falling outside the state forests has not been quantified.. This complicates planning and overall management of the forests sector. In addition, there is need to account for the contribution of the sector to the GDP for purposes of resources allocation and investment.. The Government will therefore collaborate with both private and international community to develop an appropriate accounting and evaluation system.
2.3.8 Forest research and development

Research has been instrumental in forestry development in the country. However, effective research is still constrained by inadequate resources (human and physical), and thus has difficulties responding to urgent needs in the sector, including e.g. development of suitable technologies for increasing forest and tree cover, methodologies for payment for environmental services (PES), technologies on the development of bio energy. Where resources exist, they are scattered in different institutions, and there is a lack of coordination of the use of resources. There is therefore a need to strengthen partnerships and linkages in research and development, in order to properly harness and utilize the available resources.

The research should address and prioritize emerging issues among them bio-prospecting, policy and strategies on invasive species (prosopis), utilization of bamboo species among others.
2.3.9 Operational challenges

In respect to forests and related resources, the sector faces challenges that include:-
 Increasing gap between supply and demand for forest goods and services occasioned by population increase and over-reliance on wood from limited gazetted forests.
 Increased pressure resulting from the conversion of forest land to agriculture and settlement. Lack of management regime for Bamboo and other commercial indigenous species
 Inadequate information on the status of forest resources in terms of quality, quantity and trends on growth and yield needed for informed decision making.
 Inadequate education and awareness among the public on their role, rights and responsibilities in the conservation and management of forests.
 Absence of appropriate technology to improve efficiency and value addition in utilization of forets resurces
 Conflict of interests and priorities in the conservation and management of natural forests among the various stakeholders
 Increasing threats to habitats and species through loss, fragmentation and disturbance. Decreasing forest cover and increasing deterioration of forest plantation quality in the country,
 Management of trans-boundary natural forest resources
 Absence of strategies for dealing with invasive species especially the prosopis
2.4 Wildlife resources

Conservation and management of our natural environment of Kenya and its fauna (this includes microorganisms) and flora is critical for the benefit of the present and future generations. Major challenges are the loss of wildlife habitats, species and financial sustainability. Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) is the agency responsible for wildlife conservation and management.

Other threats to conservation include general insecurity in some parts of the country, influx of illegal weapons,, poaching, human/wildlife conflict, illegal trade in wildlife products, environmental degradation, loss of migratory corridors, pollution and encroachment of protected areas.Povertyy and other socio-economic inequities also pose probles Indeed terrorist threats, negative advisories and unfavorable resolutions reached at international conservation fora have not helped the situation either. These when combined with diminishing conservation areas, high community support expectations, poor road infrastructure and decreased funding all affect wildlife conservation.

Management of wildlife in and outside Parks and Reserves in Kenya is a daunting task that calls for greater collaboration between different stakeholders and strategic partners. Human encroachment on migration corridors, habitat fragmentation and poaching have resulted in serious challenges in wildlife management. Settlements and conversion of migratory routes has caused decline in wildlife population and this has prompted the sector to view wildlife corridors with a lot of concern.

The other challenge is the management of invasive species which require large amount of resources. Most alien invasive species are noxious, fast spreading and inedible. The creation of buffer zones and fire protocols is crucial in all protected areas. KWS faces a human and technical resource challenge.
Bio prospecting provides for great opportunity to tap economic value from genetic resources. KWS is strategically placed in the development of bio-prospecting. There is need to develop policies and strategies to sustainably exploit the resource. This component has the potential to generate revenue for the Government .

The Wildlife policy and Wildlife Act are under review. The wildlife policy once complete is expected to address the issue of Human Wildlife Conflict with specific emphasis on compensation and securing of wildlife corridors among other issues. The involvement of the private sector in wildlife conservation and management should go beyond contributions to the envisaged Wildlife Conservation Trust Fund. There is therefore need for conservation beneficiaries to plough back part of their profits towards conservation of the wildlife.
2.5 Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASALs)
2.5.1 Drought Management

Kenya has made significant progress in drought management in recent years, but has not yet succeeded in institutionalizing a fully developed drought management system. As a result, the impact of drought continues to be a major contributory factor to the rising poverty in arid areas. The challenge of managing drought effectively is being made more complex by the increasing unpredictability of weather and climate, and by continued weaknesses in systems of natural resource management, including the management of water sources.

The consequence of climate change and the need for the poor communities to adapt to the change pose even more challenges. Drought exacerbates land degradation which in turn increases poverty levels.

Northern Kenya experience cases of flush floods that result in destruction of property and loss of livestock and human life. This is followed by periods of long dry spells when there is water shortage leading to drought related calamities. If harvested, this water could provide the solution to the water problems in the region.
2.5.2 High Poverty Levels

High poverty levels in the arid lands, and more so northern Kenya undermines the ability of pastoralists to cope with the ongoing climate change. This exposes the region to increased impact of environmental degradation. Migration from high potential areas as pressure on land increases: This has led to the over-exploitation of some parts of the ASALs, especially in areas such as Loitokitok which are being transformed from livestock to crop lands.
2.5.3 Access to basic services

Access to education in the north is undermined by inappropriate teaching materials, poor infrastructure, inadequate allocation of high-quality teachers and difficulties in retaining them. Cultural factors, such as early marriage and a preference for educating boys, as well as the heavy reproductive demands placed on girls, create significant gender differentials in educational outcomes. All these affect human resource in the region thereby undermining agricultural development in the region.

2.5.4 The impact of the invasive tree species

There are invasive indigenous and exotic tree species in the ASALs which can be controlled through utilization and value addition. Invasive species like the Tarconanthus Compiatus (Leleshwa) can be tamed through extraction of essential oils and sustainable charcoal production. Prosopis species can be controlled through utilization of ponds for livestock feeds, commercial charcoal production and wood production.
2.6 Crosscutting Issues/Challenges
2.6.1 Conflicts

Conflict in pastoral areas is driven by many factors, including long-standing inter-communal tensions, competition over and commercialization of resources especially land, the proliferation of small arms, the government’s limited presence on the ground and its weak enforcement of the law. As a result, conflict continues to undermine socio-economic development in areas such as water, sanitation, forest and environmental management
2.6.2 Infrastructure

Inadequate physical infrastructure in rural Kenya is a key challenge that must be addressed. These include: the road network which is rudimentary, and in some places non-existent; telecommunications which is restricted to major towns and along highways and limited access to electricity that restricts the scope for investment in water supply and irrigation development .Similarly poor forest access roads and communication infrastructure deter investments in forestry and ecotourism development. Key departments in the sector are adversely affected by poor and insufficient facilities and infrastructure.

Kenya Meteorological Department (KMD) Better quality products from KMD will assist the Government in, among others, conservation of the natural environment by giving indicators of environment and climate changes through modern and efficient monitoring, measurement and observations of the necessary weather parameters.

However, at the present most of the facilities are old and require rehabilitation and modernization if the Department is to improve its services to key sectors of the economy and efficiently discharge its regional responsibilities.

2.6.3 Legal and institutional framework/mechanism

In recognition of the importance of good governance in the environment and water sector, the government has instituted a number of legal and institutional reforms. The main one being; the enactment of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) of 1999.

National Environment Management Authority
The EMCA provided the avenue for the harmonization of about 77 sectoral statutes. However, the major challenge relate to low enforcement to the provisions of Act. This has been occasioned by inadequate institutional capacity to oversee its implementation and low level of environmental education in the country. The low stakeholder involvement such as the public, civil society, institutions of higher learning and the private sector is another challenge.

Other important reforms for the sector involve the implementation of the Water Act 2002, the Forests Act 2005, and the creation of several Semi Autonomous Government Agencies. These has occasioned different challenges specific to each sub sector. Several institutions in the sector are operating without a legal and or policy framework. There are several other policy and legal instruments that need to be developed for sustainable environmental management to be achieved, chief among them being the environment policy.

Climate Change
A majority of people in Kenya still lack a sufficient understanding of environmental issues to enable them to related problems of agricultural yields, droughts, water scarcity among others to climate change. It is therefore important for people to be provided with sufficient flows of information to address this inadequacy. Further, weak policies and legal instruments have lead to weak mechanism for coordinating climate change issues at grassroots and national levels. This has resulted in lack of streamlined coordination of climate change activities and mainstreaming of climate change concerns in national development policies, legal frameworks, and lack financial resources being targeted to address the problems that are resultant from climate change. A lack of policy or strategy to guide assessment of alternative causes of action, with a view to enhancing investments in adaptation and mitigation measures through access to and transfer of appropriate technologies also further undermines economic development in Kenya.

Irrigation and Drainage

Policy and legislative reforms have been initiated to improve irrigation and drainage in the last five years. The draft policy, legal and institutional frameworks have been formulated and presented for discussion and adoption by stakeholders. Targets in the period 2003-2007 included provision of conducive policies; facilitation and creation of an enabling environment; increase land utilization through irrigation and drainage; mobilization and promotion of efficient utilization of resources; institutional strengthening and capacity building; mainstreaming governance towards improving accountability and eradication of corruption, HIV/AIDS and gender in the sub sector; and monitoring and evaluation.

Forestry

Management of forests and the forestry sector in the country is in the process of transformation as the implementation of the new Forest Act 2005 takes place. The transformation will target review of forest policies, the forest master plan and formulation of new rules and regulations to support the implementation.

The Kenya Forestry Master Plan (KFMP), produced in 1994, is still considered the most authoritative analysis of the forest sector and relevant blueprint for the sector today. At the time, it called for an institutional overhaul to manage forest resources more effectively but, due to political inertia and weak governance, issues identified in the plan were not adequately addressed. They remain pertinent today and are reflected in the draft Forest Policy (Sessional Paper 1, 2007) and the Forests Act 2005.

In addition to overseeing the sustainable management and conservation of all forest resources within the country, the Act provides a framework through which the forest sector can address inefficient resource utilization and adverse effects of development on the environment. Consistent with the KFMP goal to increase forest cover to 10% over the next decade, the policy states the government’s intentions to promote farm forestry, intensify dry land forest management, encourage private sector engagement in industrial plantations and involve communities in forest management and conservation. The KFMP will be reviewed in 2009 and updated through a highly participatory process involving several technical working groups from 2010 onwards. The Forest Policy Support Secretariat (still yet to be created) under the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife is expected to organize the consultative process.

The semi autonomous Kenya Forest Service (KFS) which is the lead agency in the forestry sector has an expanded mandate under the Forests Act, 2005 to oversee management for all types of forests (state, local authority and private). This expanded mandate means that KFS has now to work closely with a wider spectrum of stakeholders some holding diversified interests and motives and this has been an increasing challenge. In order to integrate stakeholders in the running of forestry affairs, the act requires that several community based institutions be established.

The forest sector therefore faces a major challenge of establishing and strengthening forestry governance structures. The KFS is currently assisting in the setting up of Community Forest Associations (CFAs), Forest Conservation Committees (FCCs), Forest Zones and Forest Conservancies. To put up those governance structures in place requires enormous financing which is still awaited. Apparently, strengthening the financial base of the lead institution (KFS) for forestry development would enhance its positive influence in decisions impacting the sector.

The forestry sector can only perform appropriately if adequate resources are consistently provided. To reverse the previous non performance within the forest sector calls for increased funding levels. During financial year 2008/09 a 4 billion shillings budget presented to treasury for funding did not receive full financial allocation. As a result planned staff recruitment did not take off as planned.

The Forest Conservation Fund as envisioned by the new Forest Act has not been operationalised. According to the new Forest Act, 2005 all forests must be managed in accordance with prepared forest management plans. This is a challenge in the sense that a lot of financial and human resources are required to accomplish this task. Furthermore, the dilapidated infrastructure requires upgrading and maintenance.

Setting up management systems has been a priority for the newly recruited KFS staff. As part of the de-linking, KFS needs to develop new functions. At this stage, support for systems development at the Headquarters remains critical; however, it may not be enough to expect new systems to be the answer if KFS staff in the field is not given the chance to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to cope with new values, expectations and processes. Training at all levels is required.

Forest extension programmes in the ASALS: Farm and dry land forestry is viewed as the main source of forestry products and services in future. Development and management of forestry and related enterprises in dry land and farms within the ASALs present a major challenge to the forestry sector.

KFS employs various extension approaches to disseminate information to the public, some of which are in collaboration with other ministries as part of an integrated package to address issues at the farm or community level. Building on the successful farmer field schools, KFS can create incentives for the management of environmentally sensitive land by supporting projects that promote alternate livelihoods and generate income. The new strategy shifts from production and distribution of tree seedlings to assisting farmers and rural communities to establish their own nurseries, care for seedlings and manage and conserve trees on their farms. By the end March 2009, more than 4,000 households are expected to benefit from the farmer fields school approach in selected districts. Recipients are mainly rural poor people, women, and youth who may not venture to start enterprises on their own. In semi arid areas, these groups are particularly vulnerable due to limited livelihood opportunities as a result of low productivity, friable soils, unreliable rainfall, in addition to poor access to market information, limited value addition, and lack of investment capital. As a public service, KFS extension helps farmers to add value to non-wood forest products through processing; practice agro forestry; diversify into high value crops; establish networks to access market information and market outlets; and raise livestock such as ostrich, guinea fowls, and camel to respond to emerging demand. However, resource constraints severely curtail this type of assistance.

Wildlife

The wildlife conservation and management is undergoing review with expected review of the Wildlife Policy and Wildlife Conservation and Management Act. The new Strategic Plan 2008 – 2012 focuses on based on image , people and technology .

A protected Area Planning framework is being adopted through greater emphasis on natural resources management through an ecosystem approach. The planning is driven by the need for greater efficiency and more effective stewardship of parks and reserves.

Ecological integrity is a key pillar in wildlife management. On continuous basis, all efforts must be directed at healthy wildlife habit and ecosystems. Proper inventories of endangered species as well as cropping of other wildlife populations to ensure optimal levels are maintained.

In line with the Conservation and Management Act, Cap 376, during this period, we shall seek to operationalise the Wildlife Conservation Trust Fund.

Meteorological Services

To implement cost recovery measures for specialized services e.g. aviation, marine, agriculture, broadcast weather for electronic and print media etc. KMD has potential to generate more revenue but lacks legal framework for implementing cost recovery measures. The sector can address this by preparing appropriate bills that Parliament can enact in order to facilitate revenue collection.

Arid and Semi-Arid Lands

Policy and institutional framework: Northern Kenya and its arid districts require a policy response which is tailored to the unique challenges facing the region. This is due to the unique climatic and socio-economic conditions specific to the area. Already the Government has created a specific Ministry tailored to this area. But there is need to institutionalize this strategy through policy and legal backing.
High Poverty Levels: High poverty levels in the arid lands and more so Northern Kenya undermines the ability of pastoralists to cope with the ongoing climate change and other challenges. This exposes the region to increased impact of environmental degradation.

2.7 Environment, Water and Sanitation

The aim of the Millennium Development Goal number seven is to ensure environmental sustainability in Kenya. Aims at a 10% forest cover. However at present Kenya is below the recommended 10% of all land by the United Nations.

Rural to Urban migration and rapid urbanizations continues to create a high demand for land for economic expansion and new developments. A fast growing population projected at 37.8 million in 2008 and low investment in water harvesting storage and distribution that cannot match. Kenya is a water scarce country with 64.m3 per capita fresh water endowment against the UN recommended minimum of 1,000m3 per capita. Kenya will require to invest heavily inorder to meet the following MDG targets.
• Integrate the principles of sustainable development into the country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources.
• Reduce bio-diversity loss, achieving by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.
• Halve by 2015, the proportions of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
2.8 Strategies to address some of the challenges

To address the challenges the sector faces, some measures that will focus on environmental pollution, scarcity of resources, and capacity of institutions, stakeholders’ involvement and trans-boundary issues among others will be undertaken. Specifically the sector will implement the following strategies

Environmental pollution control strategies

Enforcement of water quality regulation and finalization of the air quality regulation. The sector will also strengthen environmental monitoring network. This will also include capacity building within regulatory institutions to monitor and promote technologies that minimize harmful emissions.

Compliance and Enforcement
The sector will promote efforts to enforce compliance to environmental standards and requirements of Environmental Impact Assessments, Environmental Audits, effluent monitoring, to manage sources of wastes and emissions, enforce conservation and biodiversity, and observation of rules and regulations. Further the sector will promote adoption of environmentally sound management systems, such as ISO 14000 EMS and ISO 9002 quality standards

Water supply and quality improvement
The sector will focus on plans and programmes that will provide water for domestic and industrial use creating appropriate legal institutional and policy frameworks to allow private sector participation and involvement of community and other stakeholders. The strategies are formulated with a view to exploit all water sources including ground, rain and surface water in the most efficient methods.

Provision of Irrigation and Drainage Infrastructure
The sector will improve utilization of land through irrigation, drainage and land reclamation in addition to facilitating sustainable economic and social development of the communities in Arid and Semi Arid Lands and floods prone areas. This is achieved through promoting development of sustainable community based smallholder irrigation, drainage schemes and water harvesting and conservation projects.

Sanitation
Adequate policies, processes and procedures to ensure sanitation mechanisms in the rapidly expanding urban centers will be implemented through the sanitation programmes. Rural and the ASALs will receive special focus in terms of water and sanitation facilities

Establishment of baseline data bases and updating mechanisms
The sector will establish data bases for natural resources-water, forests, wildlife, biodiversity and minerals. Data on Pollution status will also include chemical waste chemical stockpiles and obsolete pesticides and establish an inventory of green house gases. The data and information so gathered will aid informed decision making.

Develop and harmonize policies and legislations
Several sector policies and programmes will be reviewed among them environment, mining, forestry, wildlife and other policies will be developed. Outdated legislations will be reviewed including the Timber and Grass Fires Acts.
The new Forest Act 2005 allows for the sustainable production, sale, purchase and transport of charcoal. This therefore legalizes the charcoal industry under the new legislation framework. However to prepare for this occurrence, KFS will elaborate a National Charcoal Development Programme in 2009 which will include formulation of subsidiary regulations and medium-term investment priorities. These measures will support sustainable and environmentally benign charcoal production while gradually transitioning to cleaner fuels that have little impact on the environment and people’s health.

Develop rehabilitation programmes for degraded sites involving the youth, partners and communities in rehabilitation practices. The sub sector will rehabilitate water catchments and degraded sites through tree planting programmes and participating in forest protection patrols.

Establishing effective governance structures for protection and conservation natural resources, critical water catchments, and pollution management; This entails strengthening Provincial Environment Committees (PECS) and District Environment Committees (DECs) to respond to pollution issues effectively at the local level, creation of community based water and forest Conservation Associations among other structures.

Environmental education and awareness: The sector will mount environmental education and awareness campaigns through all avenues available. Organized Community institutions like WRMAS, CFAs and Wildlife conservancies’ forums will provide forums to create public awareness. The strategy will require participation of stakeholders for effectiveness and efficiency.

Improve and strengthen climate change policy and monitoring infrastructure: Climate Change has impacts which now affect every sector of the economy including energy, transport, health, disaster management, agriculture and food security among others. It also impacts on national security, conflicts over water bodies & pasture and may lead to population displacement.

In order to sustain high growth levels, it is necessary to first pursue sound resource management policies and second to adopt appropriate measures to address adverse effects of climate change. What is needed is adoption of appropriate technologies across the sectors of the economy and build adequate capacity to effectively respond to climate change. This will provide one of the avenues of partnership between the developed and developing countries. The 9th National Development Plan 2002-2008 and more recently Vision 2030 seeks to develop partnerships between the Government and the private sector to formulate policies to minimize transport related environmental pollution from different modes of transport. In line with Kenya’s commitment to the UNFCCC, the country plans to develop a national climate change strategy that will influence Kenya’s development policies, develop an inventory of GHG sources and sinks, develop national programmes for adaptation to and mitigating Climate Change, scientific and technological research and systematic observations related to climate systems, and promoting the development and diffusion of relevant technologies, build up the Designated National Authority to promote Clean Development Mechanism and educational programmes and public awareness about Climate Change and its effects. Therefore in order to achieve all the above, focused policy and legal reforms are required to streamline the coordination of Climate change issues in Kenya, as well as strengthening of institutional capacity to implement various measures to address climate change.

In order to come up with effective mitigation and adaptation strategies, there is need to monitor, attribute and project the climate change scenarios and attendant impacts. Hence, strengthening of monitoring infrastructure and services for attribution of climate change including the attendant extreme climate events and severe weather episodes is necessary for adaptation measures to build resilience of communities and households to cope with the adverse impacts in accordance to Vision 2030 and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on poverty reduction and the Hyogo Framework of Action on Disaster Risk Reduction.

Increase the forest cover: The sector will promote strategies and mechanisms that will ensure the forest cover is increased and that harvested areas are promptly replanted. These mechanisms will entail strongly supporting farm forestry with greater support focusing on dry land farms. Woodlands in ASALs will be protected and planting adaptable tree species with potential for commercialization be encouraged. Creation of awareness, capacity enhancement and involvement of stakeholders and participation of communities in tree planting and forest management will inculcate a culture of valuing forests and this will enhance increase and maintenance of tree cover.

Biodiversity conservation and utilization of tourism potential: The sector will implement strategies that will promote biodiversity conservation and utilization of its potential for economic growth. Natural forests and wildlife habitats will be protected and securing wildlife corridors will be prioritized. Entrepreneurship based on biodiversity programmes will be encouraged in order to provide communities with incentives to conserve.

The programmes will enhance mechanisms and strategies that will maximize on the ecotourism potential since this is largely a non-extractive use of natural resources. Promotion of tourism has ripple effects on diversity of income sources and ultimate industrialization of the nation. Infrastructural improvement will be a critical component with respect to these strategies. Through Kenya Wildlife Service, three resort towns will be established while within the plan period; the Forest Service will develop in partnerships 10 ecotourism sites.

It is essential that appropriate collaborative mechanisms to enhance linkages within sub-sectors, other sectors, stakeholders, development partners and community associations are systematically put into place.

Technology for efficiency Improvement: The sector recognizes need to adopt modern technology and management systems that contribute towards improvement of operational and service delivery efficiency. Along side the adoption of technology, capacity on personnel using the systems will be given due attention.

Research based decision making strategies: Institutions like DRSRS, KMD, and KEFRI will be facilitated to generate and disseminate data relevant to managers and decision makers.

Prosopis and invasive species: The sector will develop strategies to address the menace of invasive species. KEFRI will undertake research on management and potential socio-economic benefits of Prosopis and develop extension packages that will enhance management and utilization. Research should also address the potential of bio fuel prospecting and the socio-economic impacts. It will also be important that the environmental impact assessment and audit of both bio-fuel producing species and the invasive species will be conducted.
Payment of Environmental Services: The forests especially the watersheds contribute substantially in support to all other productive sectors in ensuring water sustainability and terms of quality and quantities. However, little efforts are directed towards protection, conservation or rehabilitation of the water catchments. The sector through the Kenya Forest Service will develop and put into place mechanisms that will ensure that beneficiaries compensate for the environmental services receieved.

3.0 FLAGSHIP PROJECT/PROGRAMMES FOR 2008 – 2012

Over the next five years, the environmental, water and sanitation sector will implement various programmes and projects geared towards achieving sustainable environmental conservation and preservation of natural resources that ensures continuous supply of quality environmental goods and services. The sector will focus on integrated environmental and water resources management, increase area under irrigation and flood control. Management of Forests, minerals and land resources will also ne enhanced. Programmes providing support services to sector productive initiatives will be facilitated to develop and improve their delivery strategies.
3.1 Environment

Develop a national waste management system: This will entail the relocation of Dandora dump site in Nairobi and establishment of a solid waste management system for the City of Nairobi on a Public Private Partnership basis. This will set a trend to be followed by other municipalities.

Rehabilitation, Regeneration & Restoration of Nairobi River
This programme covers the entire Nairobi River catchments basin. Other rivers like Ngong will also be covered under this programme. It is at the moment in phase III. The programme aims to improve access to safe water and sanitation with the goal of attaining 90 per cent access to safe and reliable water for urban areas and 70 per cent for rural areas and reducing levels of unaccounted-for-water to below 30 per cent. It will aim to achieve 70 per cent and 65 per cent access to safe sanitation for urban and rural households, respectively. It will also aim to attain 40 per cent and 10 per cent sewerage access for urban and rural areas, respectively. Youth will be engaged in the program as part of employment creation scheme under the “Kazi Kwa Vijana” initiative. Lessons learnt from the restoration and rehabilitation of Nairobi Rivers will be up-scaled to other urban areas in the country.
3.2 Water Resources
Increasing national capacity for water storage and harvesting is also a priority: Kenya aims to increase water storage per capita to 16 m3 up from the current 8 m3 by raising the capacity of the new Water Services Boards. Increased water resources will also be combined with an efficient distribution of water resources. The adoption of market principles should also bring down the cost of water in unplanned settlements, where the cost of water is extremely high. This approach will also make it possible for the boards to acquire additional financial resources for rehabilitation of the systems as well as new investments. To achieve the above goals by 2012 the following flagship projects have been identified for implementation:

Increase water storage and harvesting: Given the importance of water storage and harvesting in increasing the area under irrigation and in flood control and water supply, the Government will develop two multi-purpose dams with storage capacity of 2.4 billion m3 along Rivers Nzoia and Nyando. Construction of 22 medium-sized multi-purpose dams with a total capacity of 2 billion m3 will be undertaken to supply water for domestic, livestock and irrigation use in the ASAL areas. They are Bunyunyu, Munyu, Londiani, Itare, Upper Narok, Chemesusu, Kiserian, Yatta, Thwake, Rare, Thiba, Umma, Rumuruti, Badasa, Archers’ Post, Awasi, Kora, Ndarugu, Mwachi, Ruiru A, Siyoi and Nyahururu.

Increase national coverage of water supply and sanitation: A key flagship project will be the rehabilitation and expansion of the Mzima pipeline, which will be able to supply water to all the coastal towns. Rehabilitation and expansion of urban water supply and sanitation in the satellite towns around Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Nakuru and Kisii will also be undertaken alongside 15 medium-size towns that have the potential to support manufacturing and tourism activities proposed in the economic pillar. These are Narok, Machakos, Maralal, Wajir, Wote, Hola, Chuka, Ruiru, Athi River, Siaya, Ol Kalou, Matuu, Maua, Moi’s Bridge and Limuru. To improve infrastructure, the following strategies will be pursued: innovations in rural waste disposal combined with relevant incentives; encourage transition from traditional pit latrines to (adoption of) improved versions; cross-reference to the health sector with regard to public health; and increased coverage of improved sanitation in Kenya’s rural areas. Under Vision 2030, a research and development project will be commissioned on improvement and application of improved toilets and community sanitation. Promotion of the use of ventilated and improved pit (VIP) latrines and septic tanks in rural areas will target schools adhering to the ratio of one toilet for every 35 boys and one toilet for every 25 girls. This initiative will boost the achievement of improved access to safe sanitation. In addition, the Government will encourage planned rural and informal urban settlements, as indicated under the agricultural sector of Vision 2030.

Expansion of water supply and sanitation in the proposed resort cities in Isiolo, Lodwar and the Coast will also be undertaken to support the development envisaged in the economic pillar. To increase national coverage of water supply, Kenya will explore practical modalities for organised/planned settlements. In addition to other measures to boost the supply of water to urban and rural areas, efforts will be made to explore possibilities of trans-boundary sources of water.

Irrigation and Drainage: Irrigation influences national development through the growth of the agricultural sector leading to food security, improved incomes, employment creation and sustainable livelihoods. Now that the allocation to the Agriculture Sector and Irrigation Development has been increased to 8% of the GDP in Kenya, this MTEF Proposal assumes that allocation of funds for Irrigation and Drainage Development will be increased to at least 2% of GDP. The construction of Irrigation and Drainage Schemes to increase the area under irrigation from Bura, Hola, Kano Plains, Nzoia (upper, middle and lower) Perkerra, Kerio Valley, Mwea, Taita Taveta, Ewaso Nyiro North, Ngurumani (Kajiado).

The programme will support small holder community irrigation schemes to increase area under irrigation each year from 110,000 to 245,000 ha, drainage from 30,000 ha to 90,000 ha. Prioritization and regulation of Irrigation, Drainage and Water Storage in consultation with district leaders

To promote low cost irrigation technologies and productivity in ASALS - Land Reclamation infrastructure, Yatta canal extended by 100km and one uptake dam constructed at Thika River. Expand the irrigated area in the Tana River Basin so that more land is irrigated and higher returns realized

3.3 Forest Resources

Natural forests management / conservation plus rehabilitation and protection of indigenous forests in the five (5) Water Towers: This program entails full rehabilitation of the five water towers of Mau Escarpment, Mt. Kenya, Aberdare Ranges, Cherangany Hills and Mt. Elgon. The current forest policy aims to promote sustainable management of the forests to serve as water catchments, biodiversity conservation reservoirs, wildlife habitats and carbon sinks. The indigenous forests will provide important economic, environmental, recreational, scientific, social, cultural and spiritual benefits. Management will embrace preservation of religious and cultural sites, traditional medicinal sources, water catchments, habitats for endemic and threatened flora and fauna.

The ecosystem approach will be adopted in forest management. This will also involve Joint management with stakeholders, (KFS, KEFRI, local communities, civil societies, KWS, development partners and others) through forest conservation committees around each tower. This process will be supported by adaptive research.

Conservation of the Mau Complex and Other Water Towers

The office of the Prime Minister has set a Task Force to address the challenges currently facing conservation and preservation of the Mau Complex. The terms of reference for the task force were

1. Land ownership and resettlement;
Audit land ownership and land rights in the protected forests and 2001 excisions. Identify critical catchment areas. Identify modalities to relocate or resettle people form the protected forest. Identify modalities to reposes critical catchments.

2. Restoration, livelihoods and resource mobilization:
Identify potential sources of funding and interested development partners. Prepare project proposals. Secure funding through consultation

3. Enforcement and outreach:
force deployed on the ground to contain further forest destruction. Joint administrative and enforcement structures established to coordinate the force and conduct regular monitoring of the situation of the blocks. Communication materials developed to raise awareness and educate communities on the need to conserve the forest. Barazas at community levels

The task force report will inform the detailed implementation of Mau complex and other water towers management activities.

3.4 Wildlife Resources

Secure wildlife corridors and migratory routes: Most wildlife corridors and migratory routes have been interfered with by human activities. It will be necessary to reclaim them if wildlife is to continue providing the base for the tourism sector.
3.5 Department of Resource Survey and Remote Sensing

Land cover and land use mapping: This initiative calls for accurate and continuously updated mapping of land use patterns in Kenya, and of tracking developments. This project will also entail undertaking both livestock and wildlife censuses. It cuts across the economic and social projects envisaged under Vision 2030.

The preparation of a National spatial plan (Land use master Plan): This will involve collecting accurate data and continuously updated mapping of land use and tracking development patterns. This project will also entail both livestock and wildlife census and the zoning of rural and urban areas that are currently unmapped.

3.6 Minerals Resources

Geological Mapping: This will mainly include regional mapping of the remaining 20 per cent unmapped parts of the country bordering Somalia and southern Sudan (Elemi Triangle), as well as revision mapping of several other mineral potential areas. It will also include inventory, mapping and zoning of geo-hazard areas.

Exploration and Mining: An accurate and detailed geological mapping of the country, accompanied by airborne geophysical survey will be undertaken to provide information that may lead to the discovery of minerals of commercial value. The current exploration for minerals and crude oil will be intensified. The private sector will be encouraged to participate in both large and small scale mining industry, and also in developing geo-tourism sites as part of the diversified tourism circuit within the country. Small scale miners will be targeted for increased financial investments.

Sustainable management of common minerals: the proposed new Minerals and mining legislation aims at bringing common minerals such as building stones, clays and sand, for which quarrying or harvesting has resulted in environmental degradation and loss of life under its ambit. This will call for concerted efforts in ensuring that environmentally friendly mining practices of these minerals are adhered to. As such, together with other relevant institutions, guidelines on how these minerals should be exploited will be developed.

3.7 Meteorological Services

The application of weather, climate and water information and related services helps improve the safety and well-being of people, reducing poverty increasing prosperity and protecting the environment for future generations.

Studies have shown that up to 60 per cent of all economic activities are weather sensitive. Further, it has been shown that over 90 per cent of all natural disasters are weather and climate related. Investments in meteorological and hydrological infrastructure are proven to save lives and yield returns of seven to one (7:1) on original investment particularly in agriculture, transport, water resources and energy among others. Virtually every segment of society benefits from the infrastructure upgrades in meteorological, climatorological hydrological services. This is because the vulnerability of communities everywhere will be reduced through use of weather, climate and water information and services within the frameworks of sustainable development policies and global partnership strategies for development, especially for developing countries and in the context of the Hygo Framework for Action 2005-2015 that underpins building the resilience of nations and communities to cope with disasters.

Weather modification programme; This programme, as captured in the vision 2030 as a flagship project, entails rainfall enhancement for increased water availability over the North Eastern and Northern parts of Kenya; hailstone suppression over the Kericho-Nandi hills areas to reduce/prevent crop damage to tea plantations; snow pack augmentation research on Mt. Kenya to increase glaciers over the mountain to ensure perennial flow of streams from the catchments; also enhancement of air quality measurement for Environmental Impact Assessment, climate change and pollution management, enhancement of flash floods forecasting using the Doppler weather radar surveillance technology and enhancement of research to suppress fog and frost over high ground areas of the country. A cloud chamber laboratory will thus be established.

Modernization of meteorological services; The programme as several sub-programmes under it which are detailed below;

- Automation of weather systems. KMD has embarked on modernization of weather and climate monitoring systems. This modernization will include the replacement of obsolete and antiquated equipment, installation of Automatic Weather Systems for observation, data transmission, processing and archival. This will ensure accurate and timely provision of weather and climate information to the users of meteorological services.
- Enhance capacity for dissemination of information on disaster prediction, preparedness, adaptation, mitigation and response. The programme entails installation of Ranet Rural FM stations to vulnerable communities; acquisition of mobile weather observing stations; establishment of weather TV Channels; installation of Public Weather Display (PWD) among others.
- Establish an urban climatology monitoring station for pollution monitoring and climate change detection and attribution. This will entail establishing and equipping of stations within major towns with modern pollution equipment as part of the strategies to strengthen monitoring of climate change.
- Establishment of districts/provincial weather bureau/offices and stations. The Department has created provincial meteorological offices and deployed staff to those offices in an attempt to devolve services closer to the users of meteorological products and services. The programme is to extend to the district level. It is noted that this will require establishment of additional stations and staff recruitment.
- Conduct Operational Research; This is an on-going project aimed at improving forecast methods especially in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)

3.8 Other Programmes to be Implemented in the Next 5 Year

Apart from the flagship projects, the sector will undertake other projects to realize the objectives of Vision 2030.
3.8.1 Environmental management

Environmental Education and Awareness for Sustainable Development (ESD): The Education for Sustainable development (ESD) Implementation Strategy (2005-2014) for Kenya constitutes a framework for guiding stakeholder educational interventions to steer the country towards sustainable development.

Use of market-based environmental instruments: Design and implement appropriate environmental management instruments e.g. incentives/disincentives in environmental management. Both economic and non-economic measures will be considered. This should culminate in the intergration of environmental data into the national accounting process i.e. GDP.
Promote the Clean Development Mechanism: Kenya as a country has been concerned about climate change, demonstrated by the level of participation on climate change issues and contribution in shaping the climate change regime. One such commitment is reflected through its ratification to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 30th August 1994

Strengthening the Designated National Authority (DNA): strengthening the capacities of Designated authorities to implement Multilateral Environmental Agreements(MEAs.).

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Mainstreaming gender in environmental governance: Gender as a social concept identifies the inherent difference between men and women and how they are affected by degradation of the environment. Gender concerns will be incorporated in all aspects of program conceptualization, design and implementation.

Research: to carry out research on natural resources and regeneration, value addition to recycled products.

Sustainable development indicators: Development of a framework to enable the country assesses progress in the realization of suitable development.

Coastal zone and marine assessment: The initiative involves assessing the potential opportunities provided by Kenya’s coastal ecosystem and to produce a databank to be used by investors and regulatory agencies.

Promote the integration of environment into development: This will be achieved through use appropriate tools for integration eg. Valuation of Natural Resources and environmental management tools such as Environmental Impact Assessments, Audits, Sectoral Environmental Assessments, and District, Provincial and National Environment Action Plans
3.8.2 Water Resources

Increase national water supply and sanitation coverage in rural areas: Water coverage in rural areas is still low though most of the population still lives in these areas. Programmes aimed at increasing coverage will be supported in the next 5 years. They include construction of 180 new water and sanitation projects/rehabilitation of old ones per year. The target will be to develop/improve existing piped water supply schemes and constructing sanitation facilities in rural areas which are community or government managed and spread in the whole country. In ASAL areas, here surface water is scarce, 140 boreholes will be drilled and 160 small dams/water pans will be constructed per year to support pastoralists and other communities. This is a core poverty programme that has received support in the last 3 years and will continue.

Increase national water supply and sanitation coverage in urban areas: The anticipated urbanization in Vision 2030 requires proper planning for water and sanitation services that can meet the demand. Though 15 medium towns are proposed to be supported to improve these services, other 11 medium towns will also require rehabilitation of water supplies and sewerage infrastructure in the next 5 years to serve the urban population. These are Moyale, Kapsowar, Maseno, Kapenguria, Lokitaung, Karuri, Lamu, Chogoria, Chuka, Kilgoris and Kehancha. However minor rehabilitation works will be carried out in other towns on emergency basis to restore or improve supply.

Medium term flood mitigation programme: In areas prone to flooding like Bundalang’i, Kano plains, Taita Taveta, Garissa and other parts of lower river Tana, medium term flood mitigation measures will be undertaken. This will reduce the community’s vulnerability to floods.

Trans-boundary waters: The Nile Basin Initiative is supporting the rehabilitation and expansion of Bomet Water Supply and Sewerage System to serve an additional 25,000 people and extension of pipeline by about 2km. It is also building early confidence, through sensitization and awareness, to communities in the basin in undertaking self initiation projects, for the purpose of optimizing resource usage. Other trans-boundary river basins that will be managed for sustainable development include the Lake Turkana Basin, Lake Victoria Basin, Lake Jipe and Lake Natron.
3.8.3 Irrigation and Drainage

The country will exploit the ASALs and bring an additional 600,000 - 1,000,000 Ha under Irrigation. In order to facilitate implementation, a framework has been developed as a contribution to overall national goals of poverty alleviation, food security, economic growth and sustainable development:
• To increase the area under irrigation development by 40,000ha per year.
• To increase the area under drainage development by 12,000ha per year.
• To increase the sustainability of the irrigated and drained areas by the year 2012.
• To increase the irrigation water productivity of the irrigated and drained areas to optimum levels by the year 2012.
3.8.4 Arid and Semi-Arid Areas (ASALs)

Water resource management and development: Water availability, its appropriate development and use are key in the development of the ASALs. The development of surface water through appropriate community-owned water harvesting structures such as pans and dams will be emphasized while ground water will be developed based on social and environmental sustainability criteria. The drilling of new boreholes and their equipping with high maintenance pumping equipment will only be undertaken but with thorough environmental impact assessments and consensus reached and agreed upon by communities and all relevant stakeholders. Emphasis will be laid on rehabilitating and operationalizing already existing boreholes as opposed to drilling new ones. The potential for irrigation, especially in the semi-arid areas will be explored based on studies and relevant policies that have already been formulated by the Ministry of Water and Irrigation.

Because of inadequate rainfall for cropping, water availability is one of the main factors limiting the pace of development in semi arid areas. The development of both surface and ground water sources will be emphasized. Proven ASAL water harvesting and supply technologies that are sustainable and environment-friendly will be given priority. The strategy is to provide water in sufficient quantities and quality for human and livestock consumption, crop farming and agro-forestry. The priority will be set by the communities but with technical input of professionals in this field. The use of indigenous technical knowledge and locally available materials in the development of water harvesting and irrigation facilities will be a key consideration.

Key priorities in the water sector in semi arid districts will include:

i. Build local capacity for the water facility rapid response teams to be financed by the communities and respective local authorities.
ii. Levies and cess on livestock sold should be made available to maintain the rural boreholes by the rapid response teams.
iii. Privatize urban water systems in semi arid districts, while taking care of the interests of the poor.
iv. Establish institutional mechanisms to facilitate proper handing over of public water supplies to communities, the private sector or other appropriate entities.
v. Strengthening local institutions/user groups to manage community-based resources such as rural water supply systems and natural resources including small dams, water pans and boreholes
3.8.5 Forestry

The current Forest Policy emphasizes the need to: increase forest and tree cover; improve wood production especially at farm level; conserve and rehabilitate the remaining natural forests and woodlands for environmental protection and biodiversity conservation; participatory forest management and, contribution of forestry to poverty reduction. Policy goals will be achieved through the following programmes:-

Forest Plantation Establishment and Enterprise Development (FPE&ED) program: focus on development of forest plantations essential for industrialization, creation of employment and poverty alleviation. Use of fast growing tree species and broadening of species choice will be promoted. Technologies that will enhance efficiency in forest products utilization will also be encouraged.

Under the FPE and ED program, Participatory Forest Management will be implemented. PFM will include creation and strengthening of organizational structures CFAs, FCCs and community user groups. These structures will provide avenues to involve the stakeholders in the forestry sector. The programme also includes piloting and eventual replication of the plantation establishment and livelihood improvement schemes (PELIS)- the former shamba system. The programme will ensure increased plantation establishment and maintenance for industrial development. This will also ensure that clear cut areas are replanted and the forest cover maintained.

Dry land and farm forestry: These are areas that form important basis for rural communities’ livelihoods. The area also has the greatest potential on which the nation's forest cover can be increased. However since the contributions of these forest areas are within the informal sector, their value is not fully accounted for in the national income and statistics hence receive very little investments. The programme will seek to introduce high-value tree species at farm level in order to contribute to the targeted forest cover of 4 per cent by 2012. The initiative will introduce commercial tree species in ASALs in order to control desertification and improve livelihoods.

The extent of forests and amount of tree resources available on farms is unknown. It is essential for the country to undertake resource assessment in dry lands and private farms in order to determine strategies to stimulate forestry related industrialization.

Trustlands and local authority forest lands: Most trustlands are found in the arid and semi arid areas of east and northern Kenya. Dryland and woodland forests on public land are usually under the control of local authorities. The Forest Act 2005 recognizes and promotes these areas as productive forest areas on which community and micro enterprise should be supported, to contribute to people’s livelihoods by providing fuel wood, charcoal, bee habitat and fodder. If sustainably managed, these forests can reduce the pressure on the remaining natural forests.
Forestry and tree planting in settled areas will be promoted and implemented through urban forestry initiatives, city and towns beautification projects, highway and roadside planting as well as alienating areas for recreational activities within new estates. Local authorities will play an important role.

Monitoring and evaluation systems: Programme addresses entire monitoring of the sector with respect to forest resources. This entails assessment of progress in terms of tree cover trends, status and quality of forests, institutional and legislations efficiency among others. KFS will also specifically evaluate impacts of legislative and regulatory change on different stakeholder groups (and any trade-offs) which will help support more informed decision-making and debate.

Capacity building: The capacity building will include establishment and strengthening KFS headquarters, conservancies and zone offices, construction and maintenance of forest access roads, construction of patrol bases, fire towers and other infrastructure, development of forest information systems, updating technical skills, training and recruitment.

Undertake comprehensive forest resource assessment and inventory. KFS having transformed to a semi autonomous agency requires taking stock of all its resources. This will inform management decisions and form the baseline database for KFS. After determining the base status of the sector, there is need to sustain determination of the forest status on biannual basis.

Development of forest management plans for all forests. The Forest Act 2005 makes it mandatory that all forests in Kenya are managed through a management plan. This will be implemented during the plan period.

Research and forestry development. Sustainable management, conservation and development of Kenya’s forests depend on application of science to generate improved technologies. Consequently forestry research is undertaken by KEFRI to generate technologies that will improve the way our forests are conserved, managed and developed for socio-economic development of Kenya. Research should focus on appropriate valuation of forests.

Bamboo technology transfer: This seeks to enhance production and processing of bamboo and bamboo products. As an alternative, fast growing fibre species has high potential to revolutionalize conservation and the wood industry. China has the best technology in bamboo development and the Kenya can therefore learn and develop bilateral programmes in the promotion and utilization of this resource for socio-economic development. Towards this end, the Government will develop a policy on the development , utilization and management of the bamboo resource in the country.

The prosopis management strategy: This seeks to combat the threats posed by the prosopis (mathenge) tree species. The sector through collaborative efforts will research on prosopis and develop policy and strategy that will guide management and utilization of the invasive species.

Carbon offset scheme: The initiative will exploit opportunities within the Kyoto Protocol on the establishment of voluntary carbon markets in order to promote conservation and compensation for environmental services. Kenya is one of the countries to benefit from the partnership carbon facility framework facilitated by World Bank to pilot on the Reduction of Emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) programme. It is in the process of formulating a readiness plan for the programme.

Charcoal regulation: The new Forests Act 2005 allows for the sustainable production, sale, purchase and transport of charcoal. The sector will formulate an elaborate National Charcoal Development Programme in 2009 which will include formulation of subsidiary regulations and medium-term investment priorities.

Wildlife

Development and implementation of endangered species strategies:
The development of endangered species strategy will have three components for it to be effective and inclusive where stakeholders and development partners are aware of the process. The first stage will be a survey of threatened species followed by capacity building and the development of the strategy.

Protected Areas Planning Framework: intensify efforts to bring all the protected areas under an ecosystem approach planning. - (Developing management plans for all protected areas and capacity building)

Wildlife based Tourism promotion and market development: Domestic and international tourism promotion and marketing, tourism recovery marketing

Premium parks initiative: Provision of more expensive tourism experience in the popular destinations such as Nakuru and Amboseli –(Develop a park grading system and charge accordingly in all sectors)

Underutilized Parks Initiatives: Upgrade the standards of the less visited parks (Meru, Mt. Kenya, Tsavo East and West, Mt. Elgon, Ruma) by rehabilitation and expansion of infrastructure through investments in high quality accommodation –(Engage private sector)

Security of tourists and wildlife: undertake problem animal control, provide security for visitors and wildlife, sustainable management of habitat
(Establishment of trust fund: Donors , individuals , governments, conservation beneficiaries etc. This fund will assist in wildlife conservation research , capacity building and technical appraisals

Biotechnology development in wildlife conservation:
It is recognized that conservation ultimately needs to pay its way if it is to be sustainable. Currently the main source of funds for protected areas is tourism activities. However, only six parks out of the 61 Parks and reserves currently generate revenue for the organization. Bio prospecting provides for great opportunity to tap economic value from genetic resources. KWS is strategically placed to spearhead the development of bio-prospecting. In this regard, it recognizes the need to develop policies and strategies to sustainably exploit the resource.

Reclaiming wildlife corridors and migratory routes: This is critical for effective conservation of the wildlife resource. Purchase of land or enactment of the land use policy.
3.8.6 Information and data
Systems for managing data and information related to the environment and natural resources in the country are generally weak. This hampers proper planning for the environment sector. Vision 2030 seeks to build necessary capacity to facilitate planning for the environmental sector and facilitate mainstreaming of the environment into the national planning process. Projects under these areas include:

i. Kenya Environmental Information Network (KEIN), collaboration between NEMA and UNEP to share environmental data.

ii. Development of spatial data and information management policy by the department of resource surveys and remote sensing in consultation with the ministry has developed a draft policy and bill for data and information management. It needs to be processed into an Act of parliament

iii. Integrated Natural Resource Assessment (INRA) project being coordinated by DRSRS is a five year project funded by FAO aimed at coming up with acceptable approach towards an integrated natural resource assessment and management.

iv. Early warning for food security: DRSRS gives annual crop forecast for the country, in particular maize and wheat. This information is used to manage strategic reserved for food security.

v. Early Warning Systems for Disaster Risk Reduction: KMD through its forecasts produce early warning information.

vi. National Spatial Data Infrastructure: In Kenya today there exists a lot of geo-spatial data but sectorally created and/ or used. This then implies a lot of duplication in generation of the same data despite this being a very costly undertaking. This is attributed to lack of a national platform for data sharing. In this regard, the Ministry has initiated development of the Kenya National Data Infrastructure (NSDI) that will enable the sharing and dissemination of spatial information among the stakeholders.

vii. RANET-Kenya project is based at the KMD and is part of the global RANET project. It is a rural communications project that seeks to transmit vital weather and climate information to rural communities using Internet and Radio. This is to enhance their preparedness and response to disasters. This is done in partnership of institutions such as government departments, NGOs and CBOs operating in the local communities, addressing challenges that affect them such as a food security and poverty reduction.

viii. National forestry inventory: The Government will undertake an assessment of all forest types (state, community, private and trustlands) to created an updated forestry database. This will facilitate better planning, utilization and decision making in the management of the resource.
Ix Information, Education and Communication: For sustainable forestry development and management, the Government will develop a forestry communication strategy to keep stakeholders informed of their roles , rights and responsibilities in forestry management.,benefits, threats and opportunities.

Mining Sub Sector
In the mining sub sector, the government will substantially address the following policy priorities:

- Creation of an enabling environment through policy, legal and regulatory reforms for management of mineral resources;
- Sustainable development and management of mineral resources;
- Generation of knowledge and information on geology and technologies towards sustainable management of mineral resources, while ensuring public safety in the use of commercial explosives;
- Establishment and support of partnerships with relevant stakeholders;
- Strengthening capacity towards achievement of departmental mandate;
- Mainstreaming of environmental concerns into overall planning and implementation of programmes and projects;
- Regulation of exploitation of common minerals such as salt, sand, building stone, and quarry rock products; and
- Inventory and rehabilitation of abandoned and disused mines and quarries.

Geological Mapping To cover the remaining 20% unmapped parts of the country bordering Somalia and Southern Sudan (ELEMI triangle). This will include inventory, mapping and zoning of geohazzard areas.

Exploration Undertake an accurate and detailed geological mapping of the country. This will provide information that may lead to the discovery of new natural minerals of commercial value. This initiative will, therefore, involve intensifying ongoing exploration for minerals and crude oil in the country.

Sustainable management of common minerals: the proposed new Minerals and mining legislation aims at bringing common minerals such as building stones, clays and sand, for which quarrying or harvesting has resulted in environmental degradation and loss of life under its regulation. This will call for concerted efforts in ensuring that environmentally friendly mining practices of these minerals are adhered to. As such, together with other relevant institutions, guidelines on how these minerals should be exploited will be developed.

MOH projects: Over the next 5 years, MOPH&S will scale up latrine coverage by 5% year, increased drinking water quality surveillance, improve drinking water quality at point of use, implement community health strategy and facilitate adoption of new technologies on sanitation (e.g. EcoSan).

3.8.7 ASALs Resource Management and Development

Natural resource and environmental management

Pastoralists and agro-pastoralists have over the years developed highly resilient production systems that are well adapted to the hostile climatic environment in the arid districts. Increased population in recent decades has led to excessive pressure on arable land in high rainfall areas with subsequent spill over into marginal areas, pasture and forestlands, and steep slopes. This excessive human pressure on fragile ASAL ecosystems has accelerated land degradation through deforestation, poor land use and inappropriate farming practices. Increased human population has meant that the traditional cultivation and grazing systems, which allowed land to ‘rest’ and regain fertility, have collapsed and fallow periods have progressively been getting shorter with disastrous results on land productivity. Other factors such as climatic change, aridity, poor knowledge and awareness on proper management of natural resources and poverty have also contributed to the declining natural resource base in the ASALs.

Conservation, sustainable utilization and management of the environment and natural resources form an integral part of ASAL development planning. All efforts will therefore be made to curb environmental degradation. Issues to be addressed include rising poverty in the ASALs, sedentarization of mobile herding households, especially around permanent water sources, poor land tenure systems, and low levels of environmental data collection, poor management of water catchments and riparian vegetation and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws. In addition, communities in ASALs have not been enabled through proper land tenure systems and local governance structures to effectively and adequately participate in the management of natural resources and the environment. The practice of traditional range management principles has thus been slowly eroded, with elders and grazing management committees wielding less and less authority over traditional natural resource management and the enforcement of laws and regulations.

The government favours a community-driven approach to rangeland management and utilization and will support efforts aimed at strengthening traditional rangeland resource use in order to effectively and efficiently utilize natural resources in a sustainable manner. Land tenure issues will be addressed to ensure that ownership and utilization of rangelands is clear and effective. To ensure proper environmental management and conservation, and in line with the National Environmental Management Act, awareness on the dangers of a degraded environment will be created. The government will involve communities in environmental management activities such as rehabilitation of degraded areas, reforestation and the development and enforcement of environmental standards and sustainability indicators. An intensive natural resource inventory coupled with research on the interaction of human population dynamics and the environment will be undertaken to ensure that natural resources in the ASALs are utilized in a sustainable fashion.

3.8.8 Youth for sustainable environment.

It is important therefore to note that for environment to be of use today and days to come it has to be sustainable. This can be achieved through environment preservation, protection and conservation. It is under this premise that the Ministry of Youth and Sports established the section of Youth and Environment to raise the level of environmental awareness amongst the youth while at the same time increasing youth participation in environmental stewardship. To achieve this, various environmental programmes such as Environmental clinics, Keep Kenya ‘Klean’ campaigns, and establishment of clubs in schools, training of youth leaders on environmental issues, formation of environmental committees, mass clean ups, mass tree planting, ‘Trees for Jobs’ project among others have been developed. The Kenyan youth has to be made aware of their surrounding environment and how to sustain it for future generations. It is important to organize workshops and seminars where youth are enlightened more on issues such as pollution and its various forms, protection of environment, conservation of environment, better farming methods, trees for jobs programme, best sanitation practices among others.

Trees for jobs programme: ‘Trees for Jobs’ refers to engagement of youth in planting and nurturing of trees for pay. It is meant to involve the youth for a livelihood. This concept is being implemented by Ministry of youth Affairs and Sports in collaboration with UNDP and other Stakeholders.
The purpose of this is to:
• Create employment
• Conserve the environment
• Engage the youth positively
The programme involves;
• Site identification where all stakeholders are brought on board to discuss on the modalities of implementing the programme and right species of seedlings for the particular region.
• Sourcing seedlings from the youth.
• Digging holes by the youth
• Planting and nurturing by the youth for 18 months.

Mass Cleanups
This involves collection of rubbish, sweeping, repainting, sanitation tiles of public toilets, solid waste management, cutting down long grasses among other things.

Mass tree planting
Mass tree planting involves youths planting trees countrywide. This has been an awakening call as result of loss of our forest cover in the recent past through deforestation. MOYAs through the section of Youth and Environment has come up with this programme to attempt at restoration of the forest cover and enhance the country’s aesthetic component. This promotes both our flora and fauna. Helps in the protection of the country’s catchments areas.

Environmental Clinics: It involves putting youths into groups and an expert in certain field takes a group at a time. If for instance we have three specialists we can organise our youths into three groups where they will be attended to separately by each specialist in turns. The aim of these environmental clinics is to inculcate information to our youths on environmental issues.

The information is geared towards enlightening our youths on opportunities available to them which are potential for employment opportunities. MOYAS officers are therefore required to identify environmental activities within their jurisdiction which youth can be inspired to venture into. It is against this background that the youth officers will invite specialist on the areas identified.

Keep Kenya Klean (3K) campaign: To promote a clean environment MOYAS intends to carry out Keep Kenya Klean campaigns countrywide to create awareness to the citizens. The areas to be addressed will be pollution, radioactivity materials and solid waste among others. Follow-ups to ensure Keep Kenya Klean (3K) campaign had some impacts amongst the youth.

The Kenyan youth has to be made aware of their surrounding environment and how to sustain it for future generations. It is important to organize workshops and seminars where youth are enlightened more on issues such as pollution and its various forms, protection of environment, conservation of environment, better farming methods, trees for jobs programme, best sanitation practices among others.

Establishment of tree nurseries: There is a need to make youths aware of what tree nurseries are, how to establish the tree nurseries, their management, pests and diseases that may affect seedlings and how to control diseases and pests. To achieve this youth have to be trained. The work of training is entrusted to the youth officer in charge of an area.

Environmental clubs: The Ministry expects that the offices will identify youth groups, community based organizations and institutions where clubs can be established and up scaled with an aim of creating awareness and social responsibility amongst the youth on environment.
3.8.9 Special Programmes

Disaster preparedness: Securing funding from global funding mechanisms to implement adaptation programmes in ASALs and high-risk zones. This will be accompanied by an improved disaster-preparedness strategy, including an early warning system and environmental monitoring covering extreme weather and climatic events (e.g. droughts, floods, pestilences, seismic occurrences, etc.), as well as initiation of a public awareness, avoidance and preparedness campaign.

Western Kenya Community-Driven Development and Flood Management Project The objective of the Western Kenya Community-Driven Development and Flood Management Project is to empower local communities of men and women to engage in sustainable and wealth creating livelihood activities and reduce their vulnerability to flooding. Progress towards achieving the project development objective (PDO) is monitored through a set of indicators.

4.0 POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS

The Kenya Government functions have until now, been organised through Ministries and Departments in a sectoral manner. Accordingly, there are gaps and overlaps on mandates. Further, there are insufficient legal and institutional frameworks to support/coordinate operations. The sector has been guided by various national policy papers and legislation including; Sessional Paper No. 6 on Environment and Development (1999), Forest Act (2005), Mining Act (Cap 306), Water Act of 2002, Kenya Forestry Master Plan, Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act (1999), The National Environment Action Plan (NEAP - 1994) and the Kenya Forestry Policy among others.

In the past various Acts have mandated different organizations to undertake irrigation and drainage activities resulting in conflicts and duplication of efforts, especially in the public sector. The Irrigation Act (cap 347) has been in existence since 1967 and there is need to repeal it. There are also several other legislations, including those concerning water, environment, land tenure, and Agriculture, which have a bearing on irrigation. The timber (cap 386) and the grass fires Acts are also outdated and will be reviewed.

During the plan period the following reforms will be undertaken:
4.1 Environment

Institutional and legal framework in NEMA

In recognition of the importance of good governance in the environment water and sanitation sector, the government has instituted a number of legal and institutional reforms. The main one being, the enactment of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) of 1999. The Act provided the avenue for the harmonization of about 77 sectoral statutes. However, the major challenge relate to low enforcement to the provisions of the Act. This has been occasioned by inadequate institutional capacity to oversee its implementation and low level of environmental education in the country. The low stakeholder involvement such as the public, civil society, institutions of higher learning and the private sector is another challenge. The following proposed interventions will address these challenges.

 Finalization and adoption of the National Environment Policy that will aim to coordinate the integration of environmental management concerns in government policy on all aspects of development.
 Build capacity to domesticate MEAs
 Institutionalize democratic, transparent, accountable and enforceable environmental management rules and regulations
 Enhance synergies through institutional partnership
 Institutionalize participatory, consultative and community inclusive environment management
 Review National sectoral and trans-boundary environmental laws to ensure harmony in natural resource management
 Build capacity to promote sustainable utilization of natural resources
 Use of incentives to promote compliance
 Incorporate trans-boundary environmental management into existing environmental laws
 Enhance enforcement of EMCA, 1999 and other legislations for natural resource utilization
 Valuation of ecosystem goods and services in monetary terms
 Monitor implementation of NEAP, PEAPs and DEAPs

In addition the sector will undertake the following;

 Revision of Environmental Management and Coordination Act 1999(EMCA).
 Development of Solid Waste Management Policy
 Formulate research and development policy
 Finalization and Implementation of the National Land Policy
 Formulation of land use policy
 Development of GIS based land information management system
4.2 Water Resources

Rapid urbanization coupled with increased unplanned settlements due to population increased and persistence drought have resulted to loss of environmental quality and health deterioration, water pollution, loss of biodiversity, encroachment of fragile ecosystems and urban decay. In both rural and urban areas access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation is a critical environmental and health concern. The widespread accumulation of solid wastes and liquid wastes in urban areas is also an environmental hazard culminating in air and water pollution and increased incidences of respiratory and water borne diseases

In the water sub sector, the present legal and institutional framework is anchored on the National Water policy, 1999 and the Water Act, 2002. The institutional framework highlights the three-tier pyramidal institutional set-up of the water sub sector where Ministry of water and Irrigation is in charge of coordination, financing and policy formulation while Water Services Regulatory Board is the water services regulator. The Water Service Boards are the asset holders and are responsible for efficient service provision in their areas of operation either through an agent (water service provider-company etc) or directly where there are no agents. Based on the experience gained while implementing the legal and institutional framework, the following reforms are proposed:

Policy Formulation

• Alignment of water policy with the irrigation and environmental sanitation and hygiene policies
• Clear classification and adoption of water companies as private or public with guidelines on their formation and operation developed by Water Services Regulatory Board and approved by stakeholders
• Demand management is given priority over supply management so as to promote efficiency in water use
• Apart from supplying water for economic development, areas where the urban poor live should also be given priority to reduce cost of water in those areas

Legal Framework

• Develop and gazette water services rules to guide water use for domestic, commercial and livestock

Institutional Framework

• When establishing water service providers, economic viability should be the given top priority such that clustering of several schemes is done in case one water scheme is not viable
• Corporate governance should be developed and practiced by all institutions to improve service delivery

A National Policy on irrigation and drainage development has been finalized pending approval. A draft sessional paper, legal and institutional frameworks have also been finalized. The main thrust of the new policy is sustainable irrigation and drainage development through sector coordination, empowerment of communities and private sector participation, irrigation research, public and private sector funding mobilization. The Land reclamation Policy is currently under formulation.

The new Act will consolidate and amend existing laws on irrigation and will address the following among others:
• regulation of irrigation and drainage activities;
• irrigation and drainage development and management; (including research, mainstreaming small holder, community, private operations and investments)
• Create necessary institutions to spearhead implementation of the above functions.

The water sub-sector will fast track the reforms to make the new decentralized institutions not only operational but also sustainable.
 Review of Water quality standards to ensure that they conform with the country’s water situation and needs,
 Water harvesting, storage, and flood mitigation policy
 Policy on trans-boundary water management
 Policy on ground water protection

IWRM and water efficiency plan for Kenya
 -Provide guidelines on irrigation to prevent river diversions and water depletion
 Built capacity of WSBs and WSPs

Irrigation and Drainage

The Sector is in the process of reforming the irrigation and drainage sub-sector. Formulation of National irrigation policy and irrigation reforms is being finalized .This will improve facilitation and enabling environment in the sub-sector.
.

Sanitation

 Develop implementation strategies for the National Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Policy
 Occupational health and safety policy
 Institutional reforms in local authorities
4.3 Forestry
Forestry management is undergoing transformation from a ministerial department to SAGA. The forest Act 2005 is being implemented and subsidiary regulations are being formulated. Priority is given to institutional reforms geared towards establishment of governance structures including support to community based structures that will facilitate stakeholder participation in the forestry management.

Having recognized that the current Forest and Wildlife Acts combine both regulatory and managial roles, the Government will undertake a legal review to separate the functions for ease and objective implementation of the Acts as well as enhancing performance and accountability.

The Kenya Forestry Master Plan has guided forestry development since 1994. There is however a need to update and align the contents of the document with current legislative, policy and economic changes so that it reflects the aspirations of the people of Kenya. The draft forest policy will require parliamentary approval.

The following specific activities will be implemented throughout the plan period.

 Continue implementation of the Forest Act 2005
 Revision of the forest policy and its subsidiary legislations
 Review timber Act Cap 386 of the laws of Kenya and grass fires Act
 Review the Kenya Forestry Master Plan.
 Development of National charcoal policy and formulation of national charcoal development programme aimed at legalizing, commercializing the charcoal business while ensuring sustainability of production and environmental stability.
 Establish GIS and information centers for informing planning and enhance resource monitoring.
 Provide site specificity guidelines on tree species such as Eucalyptus
 Strengthen and expand the forestry extension services so as to avail guidance on farm forestry development.
 Develop and implement strategies on invasive species (prosopis etc) in order to control spread and impacts.
 Creation of forestry and wildlife directorate
 Domestication of relevant treaties and convention
 Infrasture development
4.4 Wildlife
To improve wildlife resource management and increase benefits to he stakeholders, the Government will undertake legal and institutional review focusing on the following areas:
 Wildlife Policy
 Wildlife Act
 Development a Wild Life management Strategy
 wildlife conservancy
In addition, the government will develop strategies on endangered species, development of protected areas as well as development of infrastructure in parks and reserves.4.5 Mineral Resources and Mining

The soon to be enacted National Mineral Resources and Mining Policy will provide a framework of principles and policies that will guide the Government in the reform of the mining sector.

The government intends to foster the establishment of a thriving mining industry, which will make full contribution to sustainable economic development in the country. This is in recognition of the fact that mining can act as an engine for economic development by diversifying exports, widening the tax base, generating skilled employment, creating demand for local goods and services, contributing to infrastructure development, producing raw materials for local usage, and acting as a catalyst for wider investment in the economy. As such, there is an urgent need to unlock the potential of the mining sector, by attracting new investment in the exploration for, and exploitation of mineral resources.

To achieve this, an enabling environment for investors which is based upon modern regulatory arrangements and competitive terms, must first be established. Whilst seeking to encourage investment by mining companies, there is also need to ensure that mining operations are conducted responsibly. As such, the neglect of the environment and harm to local communities as a result of mining operations will not be condoned. The intention therefore is to ensure that the country secures the full economic and social benefits that mining development promises.

The initiatives contained in this policy are directed not only at large-scale mining but also at small-scale mining operations, which offer opportunities to support rural livelihoods and local entrepreneurship. In this respect, it is recognized that small-scale miners require assistance in their efforts to operate in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner.

The government further has a duty to discharge its regulatory responsibilities in an effective, even-handed and coordinated manner. As such, establishment of appropriate and consolidated legal and administrative arrangements under a new legislation to replace the Mining Act Cap. 306 of 1940 and separate statutes that govern dealings in diamonds and unwrought precious metals is a priority.

Of necessity also, is the development of the requisite institutional capacity to administer the new mining legislation. It is in this consideration that plans are in place for the formulation of policy for the establishment of a National Geological Survey, whose responsibility will include: geological mapping, mineral exploration and maintenance of geoscientific databases.

 Operationalization of a National Policy on Mineral Resources and Mining
 Formulation of a National Policy on the Establishment of a National Geological Survey
4.6 Youth and Gender
 The implementation of the National Youth Policy (2007)

4.7 Transformation of Government Departments into a Semi-Autonomous Government Agency (SAGA)

The Kenya Metrological Department (KMD)
The Department requires a legal framework designating it as the single authoritative voice and source of meteorological data and information mandated to provide Meteorological warnings, alerts and advisories in Kenya. This is a requirement under the WMO for all National Meteorological Services (NMSs) of Member States. This recognition will further enable the Department to regulate the market and to ensure protection of consumers from inaccurate meteorological information issued by questionable sources; as is the common practice today.

In a de-linked environment and with proper legal framework in place, the country and KMD, can earn a lot of revenue from providing the above mentioned regional responsibilities.

It is however, important to note that the Government of Kenya has agreed in principle to de-link KMD from the mainstream Civil Service and make it a Semi-Autonomous Agency with adequate legal framework to enable it to operate efficiently and effectively in a competitive way and modernize its facilities to achieve its vision and that of the ministry (to become a leading meteorological service in the world).

KMD has so far indicated that the de-linking process and preparation of the cabinet memorandum has commenced. Indeed the PS/MEMR has taken initiative to re-constitute the inter-ministerial committee to fast-track the process of transforming KMD to a SAGA

Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing (DRSRS)
The department has been operating without a legal and institutional mandate. The Ministry has spearheaded a policy development that aims to not only give the legal and institutional mandate, but to transform the department into an institute. The proposal is to have the institute as the focal point coordinating access and gathering of data on natural resources.
Mines and Geological Department (MGD)
The Department is in the process of starting to develop instruments for and eventual SAGA Status

Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation

The Ministry is reviewing the Public Health Act, Cap 254and formulating a policy on safe use of pesticides, health care waste management and food safety. Policy on household water treatment, safe storage and surveillance is also being developed. Implementation strategy and investment plan on sanitation and hygiene is being worked on by the environmental sanitation and hygiene working group (ESHWG).

6.0 PROJECTS TO BE FUNDED UNDER PRIVATE PUBLIC PARTNERSHIPS (PPP) OVER PLAN PERIOD

The sector takes into account the role played by partners in ensuring a healthy environment. Provision has therefore been made under EMCA and The National Environmental Management Authority to encourage joint ventures with corporate bodies, other government sectors, civil societies and the community. One such undertaking is the clean up of Nairobi River programme. In urban areas garbage and solid waste management is carried out in partnership with the private sector.

With regard to water past efforts have been made to identify projects that private sector can participate in mainly to improve service provision using efficient corporate governance and also raise capital for infrastructure development. However this has not yet fully succeeded due low return on investments and perceived high risk as water is viewed as social rather than economic good. One of the reasons for carrying out reforms is to attract private sector to participate in the water sub sector development and management. Currently the establishment of water companies managing water and sewerage services as service providers has changed the management to corporate business type resulting to improved service offered in most of them.

There are intentions in future of attracting private investment capital to finance water infrastructure development. This could mainly take the form of promoting the Output based aid concept so that micro finance institutions could support community projects. The concept of infrastructure bonds is also suitable for GoK to raise funds for the sector. In future with appropriate legislation direct private investment in the sub sector may be considered.

The sector approach to forestry development takes into account private partner participation. The forest Act 2005 provides avenues of participation through contacts, concessioning and leasing of forest land and other resources. Private partnership will also be implemented through development of out-grower tree schemes in collaboration with corporate organizations and private tree farmers. Community participation will be engage in joint forest management through Community Forest Associations and forest Conservation Committees. In respect to wildlife, conservancies will be established and management in partnerships with Kenya Wildlife Service.

(i). Solid Waste Management: The participation of the private sector in solid waste management will be enhanced. The government will engage various players to formulate policies on waste management. Infrastructure such as land fills and sewerage system are inadequate and sometimes missing. Reuse and recycle of waste are prioritized by the sector.

(ii). NEMA has existing regulations that govern environmental issues such as waste management, water quality, biological diversity air quality among others that requires institutional strengthening for enforcement. Networking with lead agencies and the private sector is key to implementation of this regulation.

(iii). Tree planting and beautification: The KFS in partnership with other agencies and private sector have been involved in tree planting programmes

(iv). Industrial tree plantation establishments: KFS has been in partnership with forest users in replanting deforested areas. In addition various organizations will participate in a forestation programmes through cooperate social responsibility initiatives.

(v). Development of tree out growers schemes:
KFS intends to develop tree out growers’ schemes in partnership with corporate organization and private farmers.

(vi). IGAs and Ecotourism: KFS will partner with communities and other private partners in establishing income generating projects in and around forest areas. This will include development of 200 tourist sites and facilities .Community Forest Associations will play a major role
(vii). Development of bamboo enterprises
(viii). Carbon stocks mapping assessment methodologies and trading
(ix). Development of biofuels feedstocks and value addition

(x). KWS needs PPP to fence some of the protected areas and in the establishment of wildlife conservation areas (WMAs) and sanctuaries
(xi). Infrastructure development in the parks and reserves (roads, bridges, airstrips and houses).
(xii). Tourism facility development in the parks and reserves

(xiii). Nairobi River Rehabilitation and Restoration Programme: At the moment, the pilot project is covering a 2.5 km demo stretch but will be replicated in the entire Nairobi River catchments basin. Thereafter, this partnership initiative will be replicated in the entire country. The private sector has already contributed some funds towards this programme. The involvement of the private sector will supplement government efforts in the control of water pollution.

(xiv). Adopt a Mile of Nairobi River: This concept aims to promote conservation of urban rivers and their biological diversity. As part of the Nairobi River Basin initiative, student environment club Chiromo Campus of the University of Nairobi have adopted Nairobi and Kirichwa rivers in the campus for the purpose of conservation and monitoring the state of water quality and aquatic life. The Central Business District Committee and other public and private sector partners have adopted other sections of Nairobi River. The whole programme is spearheaded by the MEMR together with UNEP/UNDP.

(xv). Apart from adopting their own mile, members of the student clubs and their academic mentors have undertaken to provide technical support to private sectors partners who adopt other sections of Nairobi River. This will be a good way to assess the state, monitor and maintain a data base of the river. This kind of effort can also be replicated in other universities, secondary and primary schools in Kenya.
(xvi).

(xvii). Water Resources Management and Development: The participation of WRUAs in management of water conservation areas has enhanced water resource availability and quality in addition to improved data capture. Hoteliers in wildlife conservation areas for example Mara river basin are involved in catchments conservation and monitoring water availability trends for purposes of attracting wildlife for tourist attraction.

(xviii). Water resources exploration and development is undertaken by the private sector while the Ministry, through National Water Conservation and Pipeline Corporation (NWCPC) only undertakes specific state programmes, particularly in emergency cases. The private sector will be encouraged to invest in water testing laboratories especially in areas lacking such facilities. Currently Catholic Diocese of Nakuru is analyzing and monitoring water quality in the Rift Valley, especially fluoride levels.
(xix). Irrigation and Drainage: The annual target of 40,000ha earmarked for annual irrigation development as per the sector plan will be undertaken by both the government and private sector. The major irrigation schemes;Bura,Hola,Perkera,Kano plains,Nzoia(Upper,Middle and Lower),Kerio valley,Taita Taveta,Ewaso Nyiro North,Ngurumani(Kajiado) will account for about 12,000 ha while 18,000 ha will be undertaken under small holder irrigation schemes by department of Irrigation and Drainage. The private irrigation schemes will account for 10,000 ha.
(xx). Environmental Impact Assessment: The Private Sector is involved in implementation of environmental impact assessments and audits. They are involved as Environmental Assessors or in enforcement of the environmental management regulations, in which case environmental management plans (EMP) are developed.

(xxi). Sanitation: The private sector will be encouraged in the development of sanitation facilities in urban and peri-urban areas .The sector in partnership with research institutions and universities will generate eco-friendly soak pits and latrines. Also Community involvement in this approach will enhance construction of “eco-labs” that are designed to improve the conventional sanitary facilities.

(xxii). Mining and geo-tourism: The private sector will be encouraged to participate in both small and large scale mining industry throughout the country by financing artisanal miners and large scale mineral developers as well as marketing their products. The private sector will also be encouraged to develop the geo-tourism sites as part of the tourism circuit within the country.

(xxiii). Strengthen Student Environmental Clubs: Universities have a great opportunity to mainstream environmental awareness and education through their formal training programmes and supporting environment clubs that are run and managed by students. University of Nairobi has two such Clubs in the College of Biological and Physical Sciences and it is planned that the other five Colleges initiate and support such student initiatives. Similarly, the other public and private Universities have immense potential for promoting environmental awareness and management through their bodies. The initiative can systematically cascade to colleges and schools in Kenya.

(xxiv). Development of appropriate water Technologies University of Nairobi together with others will work with Private sector to develop technologies that are usable by industry and society to establish material and product standards as well as solve health and problems relating to environment, water and sanitation. For instance making of water testing kits for E.coli , water pasteurization, and energy saving indicators.

(xvii) Establishment of Wetlands: Wetlands act as water purifiers so that polluted water passing through such constructed wetlands is of better quality. Already University of Nairobi, TARDA, Practical Action and other partners are proposing to construct wetlands along specific stretches of the Nairobi River. The community participation component is very strong and encouraged in this endeavor.

Other areas for partnership include: Public toilets and development of sanitary landfills through Clean Development Mechanism Projects (CDM).


7.0 MONITORING AND EVALUATION

The National Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System (NIMES) will coordinate monitoring of implementation of this sector plan for the period 2008-2012. This is critical for the successful implementation of the first sector plan of the first medium term plan(2008-2012) because the mandate of tracking implementation of government policies ,programmes and projects is with the Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030.

The Central Planning and Project Monitoring Units (CPMUs) in line Ministries will have the responsibility of monitoring the projects in their line ministries and sectors. The line Ministries will therefore align their respective strategic plans with this sector plans of the first medium term plan. In addition, the performance contracts of all the line Ministries and government agencies will have to be closely linked to meeting the targets of the individual ministries strategic plans.

Monitoring and reporting of progress in implementation of the various policies, programmes and projects in the sector plan will be at three levels namely; National, Ministerial and Departmental. Progress reports will accordingly be prepared at each of the levels in accordance with the indicators developed by the National Integrated monitoring and Evaluation System (NIMES) on tracking performance of the line ministries in implementation of the sector plans. The NIMES will consolidate all the reports and prepare an annual report that will indicate the country’s achievements towards the realization of Vision 2030. A detailed matrix of the activities to be implemented and by who is contained in the implementation matrix of this sector plan.

7.1 IMPLEMENTATION MATRIX
7.1.1 Environment

Goal 1
Promote sustainable environmental management
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Environmental education and awareness.
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Conservation of Natural Resources
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Enhance Public Awareness and participation To raise environmental education and awareness at all levels. Increased public participation in environmental management No of organizations in environmental management NEMA 5 years GOK/Donor 5.0 10.0 15.0 17.0
Environmental information materials developed and disseminated No of documented material and disseminated NEMA 5 years Donor 6 8 10 10
Increased environmental awareness No of organization involved in environmental activities NEMA 5 years Donor/GOK 10 20 18 12
Increased public participation in international and national environmental events No of international activities attended NEMA 5years Donor/GOK 20 30 40 50
Monitor and evaluate Implementation of ESD at all levels To mainstream ESD at all levels Education for sustainable development (ESD) policy formulated and curricular reviewed at all levels Working document for policy on ESD NEMA 5years GOK 5 5 5 5


Goal 1
Promote sustainable environmental management
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Environmental Planning and Governance
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Improve Governance of the Environment Through Integrated Panning Approach
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Develop environment action plans –NEAP, PEAPs and DEAPs
To integrate environmental concerns into development planning processes NEAP Framework, PEAP and DEAPs NEAP ,PEAPs and DEAPs NEMA, lead agencies, CSOs 5years GOK/Donor/private sector 90 100 150 200
Monitor implementation of NEAP Monitoring methodology established and the National State of Environment Report Monitoring reports ,SoE report NEMA, MSP and Vision 2030 4 years GOK, Donor 40 40 40 150
To revise NEAP, PEAP, and DEAPs Revised NEAP Framework, PEAP and DEAPs NEAP,PEAPs,DEAPs NEMA, lead agencies, CSOs 4th and 5th year Gok/Donor/private sector 60 40
To Mainstream Indigenous Knowledge (IK) in environmental planning and management To integrate IK systems in Natural resource management IK systems adapted and applied No. of IK systems adapted and applied NEMA, Lead agencies 5 years Gok/Donor/private sector 25 30 33 40

Domestication and monitor implementation of Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) To strengthen institutional capacity to implement MEAs Enhanced capacity to implement MEAs No of officers trained on implementation of MEAs NEMA, KWS, Trade, National Council for Science and Technology 5 years GOK, Donor 3 5 7 5
To Domesticate and implement relevant MEAs
-Relevant MEAs domesticated. No of activities on domestication of MEAs NEMA, MEMR 5 years GOK, Donor 20 20 20 20
International environmental obligations reporting No of international environmental obligations reports NEMA/MEMR, Foreign Affairs 5years GoK/Donor
Country position papers for MEAs No of country position papers for MEAs NEMA/MEMR, Foreign Affairs 5years GoK/Donor 4 6 8 10
Other International processes Implementing important decisions and related protocols Implementation reports No of implementation reports NEMA/MEMR, Foreign Affairs 5years GoK/Donor 20 20 28 28
Promote linkages and networks amongst stakeholders Enhance public private partnership and civil society organization Partnerships enhanced No of partners Lead agencies, NEMA, private sector, CSOs, 5 years GoK,/Donor 10 12 15 10
Strengthen PEC and DECs Functional PECS and DECs No of functional PECS and DECs NEMA, Lead agencies CSOs 5 years NEMA 50 80 90 100
Enhance compliance with and enforcement of environmental regulations and standards Enforcement of EMCA Inspections, prosecution, and regulations developed No of inspections, prosecution, and regulations developed NEMA 5 years GoK,/Donor 15 20 22 25
Reviewed regulations No of reviewed regulations NEMA 5 years GoK,/Donor 8 10 12 12

Goal 3
Enhance institutional capacity to undertake environmental management
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 To strengthen the Authority’s Capacity to undertake its mandate
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Create a positive corporate image
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
To build relevant capacity to address environmental issues Enhance corporate image Implement service delivery charter NEMA 5years GOK 2.0
Additional EPS support 2.0
Additional EPS support 2.0
Additional EPS support 2.0
Additional EPS support
Enhanced media reporting on environment No of environmental documentaries NEMA 5years GOK 35 40
Decentralization services to districts Decentralized services NEMA 5years 12 15 18 20
To enhance staff Skills development through training Staff trained No of staff trained NEMA 5 years GoK/Donor 15 20 25 25
Recruit addition staff Enhanced establishment No of recruited staff NEMA 5years GOK 75 80 90 95
To provide conducive work environment for employees Office space,, vehicles and equipment, Automation
No of offices, vehicles and equipment, Automation NEMA 5years GOK 50 60 80 85

Goal 4
Undertake and Coordinate Environmental Research
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 To generate data for sustainable management of the environment
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Monitor trends and innovations in environmental management
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Waste management system project To commercialize waste management and implement national health care waste management strategy through economic instruments and incentives Developed economic instruments and incentives adapted No of economic instruments and incentives MOPHS, NEMA, KEPSA KIPPRA, Lead agencies 5 years GoK 10 15 10 18
Relocate Dandpora dumping site Establishment of waste management system Waste management system MEMR, MOLG, PPP, MOL, 2008-2013 GoK/PPP, UNEP 300 340 350 400
National mapping of pollution sources Develop a pollution source inventory Pollution inventory developed Pollution inventory NEMA, MEMR, Lead agencies 5 years GoK 20
20 20 20
Improved knowledge of pollution sources No of awareness campaigns NEMA, MEMR, Lead agencies 5 years GoK 5 5 5 5
Rehabilitation restoration of environmentally degraded areas To rehabilitate degraded areas Increased rehabilitation /restorations areas No of rehabilitated/restored areas NEMA, MEMR, Lead agencies 5 years GoK 30 40 40 50
Rehabilitation of Nairobi River basin programme To create a clean and safe environment Nairobi river cleaned and front river business and recreation activities established. No of front river business and recreation activities established.
SoE report on Nairobi river NEMA, GOK 5 years GoK, PPP 70 70 50 50
Management and control of alien and invasive species To develop techniques for management of alien species Management and control strategy developed Management and control strategy NEMA 5 years GOK 20 20 20 20
Management of environmentally fragile/significant areas To Undertake Surveys and Document environmentally significant areas. -Inventory of environmentally significant areas
-Survey reports -Inventory of environmentally significant areas
-Survey reports NEMA 2 Years GOK 5 5 - -
To Develop specific land use guideline Land use guidelines Land use guidelines NEMA 2
Years GOK 3.0 3.0
3.0
3.0
Environmental Research programme To implement the environmental research Research priorities implemented No of prioritized research activities NEMA , lead agencies, UNEP 5years GoK, Donor, PPP 20 50 60 65
Establish linkages and networks in environment information management No of publications in circulation NEMA , lead agencies, KEIN, UNEP 5 years GoK, Donor, PPP 12 15 20 20
Climate change To develop a national climate change strategy Adapt and adopt the strategy

Enhanced capacitieson climate c hange adaption and mitigation measures National climate strategy in place

Mitigation measures in place MEMR, UNEP, OPM, line ministries continous GoK/ Donor, PPP 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000

7.1.2 Climate Change and Meteorological Services
Goals
Meteorological Services Improved
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 To Develop Capacity in Research and carry out Research on weather modification and climate
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Weather Modification, Research and development
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Hail suppression – Pilot project in Kericho and Nandi Hills Reduce damages and losses caused by hailstorms Less occurrences of hails - No. of clouds identified with cold or warm rains over Kericho and Nandi areas to facilitate hail suppression
- No. of types of aerosols identified over Kenya as condensation nuclei
KMD 2009 - 2030 GoK / Donors - 254.2 236.6 267.0
Rainfall enhancement – Pilot project in Wajir and Garissa Reduce undesirable effects of drought among the pastoralist communities in the arid and semi-arid areas Reduced impact of droughts on livestock and humans No. of amenable clouds for seeding identified over Northeastern (NE) through sample survey KMD 2009 - 2030 GoK / Donors - 197.0 314.3 320.0
Snow and Rainfall Enhancement – Mt Kenya Arrest depletion of the snowpack and to increase water levels of rivers originating from the Mt. - Reduced risks of low water levels in hydro-power generation
- reduced negative effects of climate change No. of snow meters installed over Mt. Kenya KMD 2009 - 2030 GoK / Donors 3.0 18.0 203.0 235.0

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Conduct research on, and benefits of, weather and climate as it relates to Agriculture and Food security, Health, Transport, Water, Energy, Environment etc - to Improve weather and climate forecasts for user by key economic sectors (Agriculture, Energy, Water and Environment) Improved forecasting methods, and insight to evolution and processes of weather & climate phenomena - No. of reports produced KMD Cont … GoK / Donors 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Research and Develop Forecasting models - to Improve weather and climate forecasts for user by key economic sectors (Agriculture, Energy, Water and Environment) Improved forecasting methods, and insight to evolution and processes of weather & climate phenomena - No. of reports produced KMD Cont … GoK / Donors 10.0 15.0 15.0 25.0
Research and Develop basic meteorological instruments and systems software - to improve precision of weather instrument - improved accuracy in weather forecasts - No. of reports produced KMD Cont … GoK / Donors 10.0 30.0 25.0 25.0

Goals Meteorological Services Improved
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 To improve monitoring of meteorological elements, climate change and atmospheric pollution
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Automation of meteorological services
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Install Weather surveillance Radar network system
To enhance surveillance of the atmosphere Improved monitoring of meteorological elements - No. of Radars installed KMD 2009-2012 GoK & Donors - 270.0 540.0 270.0
Install Wind Profiler at Airports To enhance surveillance of the atmosphere Improved monitoring of meteorological elements - No. of profilers installed KMD 2009-2012 GoK - 150.0 150.0 150.0
Install Automatic /Airport Weather Observing Stations (AWOS) at airports, Automatic Weather Station (AWS) other stations To enhance surveillance of the atmosphere - AWOS – Efficiency and timeliness of runway weather parameter observations and terminal forecast for aviation are realized.
- Improved accuracy in weather observation realized with AWS - No. of AWOS & AWS installed KMD 2006-2015 GoK 76.0 76.0 76.0 67.0
Install upper air & ozone observing stations To enhance surveillance of the atmosphere Improved monitoring of meteorological elements, climate change and atmospheric pollution No. of stations established KMD 2008-2011 GoK 38.0 38.0 19.0 -

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Installation of Urban Climatology Monitoring stations for Pollution monitoring & Climate Change detection and attribution To enhance surveillance of the atmosphere Effective pollution monitoring for setting air quality standards and conservation of natural environment No. of stations established KMD 2007-2014 GoK & Donors 8.5 42.5 60.0 60.0
Enhance capacity for dissemination of information on disaster prediction, preparedness, adaptation, mitigation and response - Early Warning Information for disaster preparedness and mitigation.
Effective dissemination of information - No. of information centre established
- No. of staff trained KMD 2005-2015 GoK & Donors 12.0 40.0 120.0 140.0
Enhance and introduce new dynamic modeling capabilities for diagnosis and prediction of weather and climate To improve forecasting skills Dynamic modeling enhanced - No. of computing platforms (PC-Cluster) installed for NWP & NDCL;
- No. of Modeling software procured and installed. KMD 2008-2013 GoK 38.5 10.5 7.0 7.0

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Establish and implement new WMO regional Integrated Observing System (WIGOS) & WMO Meteorological Information System (IMIS) To improve exchange of meteorological and climate data and information Efficient, reliable and rapid data transmission and exchange for processing, analysis and forecasting - No. of systems in place KMD 2008-2013 GoK & Donors 65.0 156.0 100.0 100.0
Install early warning system for tsunami in multi hazard approach framework recommended by ICG-IOC/ IOTWS - Early Warning Information for disaster preparedness and mitigation. - Public education and awareness to vulnerable communities and decision makers. - No. of TEWSs installed KMD/Mines and Geology 2006-2015 GoK & Donors 38.0 70.0 200.0 98.0
Establishment of Data archival and retrieval capacity - No. of Data Processing and Archival Systems installed KMD 2009-2011 GoK - 150.0 120.0 -

Goals Meteorological Services Improved
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 To improve monitoring of meteorological elements, climate change and atmospheric pollution
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Transform Meteorological Department into a semi-autonomous body
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Restructure KMD into a semi-autonomous To make the Department operate efficiently and effectively in a competitive way and modernize its facilities to achieve the vision KMD transformed into SAGA - Necessary Act of parliament in place KMD
2006-2009 GoK 3.0 5,000.0 5,000.0 5,000.0

Goals Meteorological Services Improved
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 To Recruit, Train, Enhance Met. Personnel and Create Awareness Among Users of Meteorological Information
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Capacity building
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Establish information systems for public & users To enhance public awareness - No. of systems installed KMD GoK 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0
Enhance Public Weather Systems (PWS) for generation of sector specific products To enhance public awareness - No. of systems installed KMD 2006-2012 GoK 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Conduct survey of identified weather needs and package into specific weather products To identify customer needs - No. of surveys conducted KMD - GoK 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0
Recruit, train and enhance expertise skills and competence for Meteorological Personnel. Enhanced expertise and competence in meteorology - No. of new staff recruited and trained
- No. of staff trained KMD 2009-2015 GoK 200.0 200.0 200.0 200.0
Review and design training programmes in line with WMO programmes and recommended curriculum Improved training curriculum - No. of training programmes KMD Cont … GoK 2.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Establish information system for sensitization and effective dissemination of meteorological information and products to the end users To increase information availability to users Establishment of an Information Systems for effective dissemination of Meteorological information & products to the vulnerable rural communities to spur sustainable socio-economic development and poverty eradication in the community. - No. of Ranet FM Stations established

- No. of Weather TV Channels established

- No. of wind-up radios procured KMD 2000-2015 GoK 60.0 270.0 270.0 170.0

7.1.3 Department of Resource Survey and Remote Sensing
Goals Sustainably managed environment and resources
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 To Sustainable manage environment and natural resource
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Natural resource data collection for planning, management and policy direction
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
ICT and a Infrastructure Development -To update and maintain the ICT infrastructure for efficient data sharing and access. -Better managed resources and consequent alleviation of poverty.

- Decision support.

- Efficient data exchange and communication links.

- Quick and Cost-effective data acquisition. -Number of users accessing our databases, No. of days the internet is down, Ratio of no. of hardware/software to technical /other staff.
-Licence keys

-time taken for return communication.
DRSRS, Data Management section 6 5 5 5
Livestock and wildlife census -To provide data on population, status and distributions of wildlife and Livestock. -Better resource and habitat management; poverty alleviation. Employment creation, Food security, revenue generation thro. Tourism and direct sales of livestock. -Number of users of the data, Cases where data has been used for management purposes; Number of surveys conducted, Census reports; no. of surveys carried out. DRSRS, aerial surveys section 10 10 10 10

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Land use/cover mapping -Mapping landscape patterns and processes( land use/ cover, Land degradation, vegetation, habitats, Forests, Ecosystems etc ) and trend analysis - Rational and sustainable resource use; Economic gains, improved ecological services., Good conservation practices -No. of reports, no of field trips, No. of users of data, MoUs. DRSRS, Ground surveys and remote sensing sections. 4 4 4 4
Geo-information policy. -To develop a policy that safeguards the departmental mandate and operations. -Easier access to natural resource data and information.

- Reduced/ elimination of redundancy in data collection.

- Reduction of data collection costs.
-A draft policy document.
-A policy document on natural resource data and information management.

- A draft bill on natural resource data and information management .

-A natural resource data and information ACT. DRSRS 2 1 1 1
Food security and Early warning - To conduct aerial photography for national crop forecasting (maize and wheat). -Food security information. place -Technical reports.
DRSRS. 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Environmental monitoring and Disaster management- Monitor resource trends, degradations

-To collect data that can be used for predictive models e.g. risk models/maps. Cost savings in disaster and environmental management -number of cases data is used; case studies DRSRS 1 1 1 1
Capacity Building Updating staff technical skills, recruitment

7.2 Water Resources

Goals
Improved provision of water and sewerage services and sustainable management and development of water resources for the benefit of all
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Enhance sustainable management of water resources and ensure improved provision of water and sewerage
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Water resources management
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Groundwater resources and Hydrogeological Mapping in Turkana District Inventory of available hydrogeological information Hydrogeological information/data for Turkana District Inventory available MWI/WRMA 2008-2010 GoK 2 2
Study and analysis of land sat imagery and aerial photos covering the area including procuring of landsat and aerial photos; geophysical equipments; groundwater automatic level recorders Report on hydro-geology of the area based on analysis of landsat and aerial photographs of the area Report MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 1 20 3
Geophysical survey Report on geophysical survey Report MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 0.3 0.7
Drilling and test pumping of exploratory wells Ten (10no.) exploration and/or monitoring boreholes; determination of aquifer characteristics No of exploratory wells MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 0 14 14 5
Compiling hydro-geological map and report Hydrogeological map of Turkana District Report and map MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 0 1 2 0

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Groundwater resources and Hydrogeological Mapping in Marsabit District Inventory of available hydrogeological information Hydrogeological information/data for Turkana District Report and map MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 1 1
Study and analysis of land sat imagery and aerial photos covering the area including procuring of landsat and aerial photos; geophysical equipments; groundwater automatic level recorders Report on hydro-geology of the area based on analysis of landsat and aerial photographs of the area Report and map MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 0 5
Geophysical survey Report on geophysical survey Report and map MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 0.5 0.5
Compiling hydro-geological map and report Hydrogeological map of Turkana District Report and map MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 13

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Water resources data and information for resource management Rehabilitation of the hydro-meteorological network 600 monitoring stations reactivated. No of monitoring stations reactivated MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 4 4 4 4
Acquisition of monitoring equipments, identification of monitoring stations and installation of the monitoring devices including real time data monitoring stations for sediments, flows and rainfall measurements 100 monitoring boreholes identified and devices installed annually; An effective and efficient flood management system No of boreholes monitored MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 30 30 30 30
Establishment of upgraded data recording and information management systems (WRIMS) and capacity building on same; monitoring measurements and monthly returns WRIMS established & operational; Regular monitoring increased to 70%. 90% of rivers have reserve flows. Monthly monitoring reports. Establishment of WRIMs MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 6 6 6 6
Capacity development in IWRM Improved staff skills No of staff trained MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 5 5 5

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Increase total volume of water through reduced catchment encroachment and rehabilitation of catchment areas and river bank protection Formulation of 4 water catchment strategies with involvement of stakeholders; Formulation and implementation of sub catchment management plans (one per SRO); Formation and capacity building of WRUAS 4 reports on sustainable water sources No of reports MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 50 100 50
Identification and delineation of key water catchment areas Protected catchments No of water catchment areas delineated MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Formulation of rules for activities that have negative impact on catchment areas Rules of procedure document Document on rules MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Rehabilitate 10 pilot degraded catchments Improved water quality and quantity No of catchments rehabilitated MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Increase water storage and harvesting for flood control and water supply Develop water harvesting, storage and flood mitigation policy Final Draft policy document Draft policy in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 6 14
Promotion programmes of rain water harvesting at household levels % of households with corrugated iron sheets roof but not storage facilities to be increased to 75% No of households with storage facilities MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 2 6 6 6
Increase water storage and harvesting for multi-purpose use
National water storage increased by 2.4 billion m3,flooding controlled at Kano plains and Budalang’i and irrigation acreage increased in Nyando and Nzoia river basins

Develop two large multi-purpose dams for flood control, irrigation and domestic use along river Nyando and Nzoia MWI, NWCPC,
LVSWSB&LVNWSB 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 1,000 7,000 9,000 11,000
2 billion m3 more capacity constructed which is used for domestic, livestock and irrigation Construct 22 medium sized multi-purpose dams
MWI, NWCPC,
LVSWSB&LVNWSB 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 500 5,000 10,000 12,000
Construction of Water dykes along lower reaches of Nzoia and Nyando Rivers Increased irrigated land along Rivers Nzoia and Nyando Area under irrigation MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 200 200 200 200
Rehabilitation of Kibos canals to transfer flood water from Kibos to Obuso Rivers Kibos canal rehabilitated No of Km rehabilitated MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 25 25 25 25
Develop rock catchment at Mutomo in Kitui District Water supply to Kitui town No of rock catchments developed MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5
Development of Munyu, Ngaa Dam in Thwake catchment and Umaa Dams 3 dams for domestic water supply developed No of dams developed MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 50 50 50 50

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Supply water for domestic, livestock and irrigation use in the ASAL areas Drilling/rehabilitation and operationalization of 100 boreholes annually 500 operational boreholes developed No of operational boreholes developed MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 700 2,000 2,000 2,000
Construction of a 54Km interbasin water transfer canal/water laggas to store and transfer flood water in ASAL areas Rahole Canal from Tana River to Garissa District to serve human and livestock in ASAL areas No of Kms developed MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 200 200 200 200
Develop 100 water pans in ASAL areas Water provided to human and livestock in ASAL areas No of pans developed MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 30 30 30 30
Develop National Water Allocation Policy Policy document Policy document in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 5 10 5
Develop policy on Transboundary Water Develop policy guidelines Policy guidelines document Policy document in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 6 14
Hold stakeholder consultative workshops Policy document Policy document in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Augment and rehabilitate Bomet water and sanitation project for environmental maintenance of a shared river system Complete design specifications. Clean drinking water Policy document in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 0.
50 150
Construct one water and sanitation project Reduced river and environmental pollution One WS project developed MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Initiate and develop agreement for joint management and development of shared water resources. Collaborations with riparians on the management plan of the Transboundary water resources through:
- Communications
- Bilateral meetings
Bilateral Workshops Draft report on the joint water management of shared water resources
Better coordination in the sector MWI/WRMA
2008-2012 GoK
7 7 7 7
Establish adequate monitoring stations on the shared waters Shared water resources network design Quality data Network in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 5 5 5 5
Establish key monitoring stations Stations installed, monthly monitoring and assessment reports No of monitoring stations established MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Mapping of transboundary water resources Field reconnaissance of shared water resources including Kilimanjaro aquifer Extent, recharge, discharge, water quality and quantity established Report of reconnaissance of shared water resources produced MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 1 1.5 1.5 1.5
Hydrogeological surveys, data analysis, modeling. Potential reports and map Reports MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 1 1.5 1.5 1.5
Transboundary wetlands conservation Well managed transboundary water resources Area conserved MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 1 1.5 1.5 1.5

Projects
Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Improve sanitation and reduced environmental pollution of towns on shared water basins Undertake liquid waste feasibility studies of Malaba, Lagdera, Lodwar, Wajir/Elwak and Liboi Adequate sanitation and sewerage disposal implemented No of sewerage schemes adhering to standards MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 0 125 125 125
Pilot project on innovative sewerage disposal system Sewerage disposal plants No of sewerage schemes adhering to standards MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Clean environment/drinking water No of sewerage schemes adhering to standards MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
National Water Quality Monitoring Program Inventorize and map all pollution sources including sewage works and industries A map of pollution sources Map in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 2.5 10 0 0
Identify and setup water quality monitoring stations in the six Catchment areas A map of the WQ monitoring stations Map in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 2 9 1.5 0
Monitor identified WQ stations WQ data available Map in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 2 2 2 2
Rationalize the number of WQ monitoring stations using available data A lean & efficient WQ monitoring system Map in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 5 5
Classify surface and ground water resources in at least one Catchment Maps of water resources classifications Map in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 15 30 15
Install automatic WQ monitoring equipment Equipment in place Map in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 5 10 5

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Formulation of policy on water quality management Develop policy guidelines Policy document Report in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 2.5 5 2.5
Stakeholder consultations Report in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Drinking Water Surveillance to ensure compliance with quality standards Inventorize existing water supplies A map of water supplies Map in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 5 15
Carry out drinking water surveillance of the water supplies Drinking WQ data available No of water samples adhering to standards MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 10 10 10 10
Equip water supplies with required water testing equipment and reagents Drinking WQ data available No of water supplies with required equipment MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 24 48 48
Retrain and deploy qualified staff Drinking WQ data available MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 3.75 3.75 3.75
Surveillance of drinking water supplied by WSPs for conformity to drinking water quality standards No. of WSPs complying with drinking water quality standards No. of WSPs complying with drinking water quality standards MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 10 10 1.5 1.5
Monitoring of water sources to protect it from pollution Quality of water sources improved No of water sources improved MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 5 5 5 5
Improvement of Water Testing Services Improve equipment of the laboratories Laboratories equipped Improved Labs MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 10 10 10 10
Improve the physical infrastructure of the existing laboratories Improved Labs Improved Labs MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 50 50 50 50
Build & equip a water testing laboratory at Garissa Improved Labs Improved Labs MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 20 20 20 20

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
National mapping of fluoride concentration in groundwater Inventorize available data from various sources and consolidate Fluoride map of pilot areas Inventory in place 2008-2012 GoK 5 5 5
Identification of pilot sampling areas Reconnaissance report Reconnaissance report in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Sampling and testing Data and report Report in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Mapping and digitizing Fluoride map Map MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Modernizing information, data capture and data processing at all levels Formulation of a policy on water resources data and information management Policy Document Policy document in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 5 15 0 0
Strengthening, maintaining and managing National Water Resources database using modern hard- and soft-ware with appropriate capacity building Database Database in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 0 5 15 25
Liaising with agencies and focal points to monitor the indicators agreed upon Periodic maps and reports on trends especially water levels, quality and solvent migrations Report and map MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 1 4 4 4
Formulation of a reporting process for the provision and dissemination of information through linkage with v-sat Framework in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 1 1 1 1

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Groundwater artificial recharge in the five Drainage Basin Reconnaissance study for artificial groundwater recharge in the five basins Reconnaissance report Report MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 0 4 3 3
Identification of suitable sites for piloting on subsurface dams and artificial recharge in the five drainage basins 5 artificial recharge sites and 40 subsurface dams No of protected sites MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 10 40 40
EIA for the pilot schemes No of protected sites MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Construction and protection of sites No of protected sites MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK
Formulation of guidelines and codes of practice for groundwater investigations, test pumping and drilling programmes Development of guidelines for drilling industry Professionalism in the industry Guidelines in place MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 15 1 1 1
Review and develop drilling and test pumping standards and technologies High productive boreholes with long life-span No of boreholes adhering to standards MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 10 10 0 0
Undertake drilling programmes in ASAL area Increased availability of water for domestic and livestock in ASAL areas No of boreholes drilled MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 120 120 120 120
Retrain drilling personnel Staff deployed No of staff deployed MWI/WRMA 2008-2012 GoK 1 3 1

Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012

Awareness campaign and public sensitization Create awareness on methods of household water treatment and personal hygiene No. of communities trained on household water treatment and waste disposal No trained MWI/WRMA Continuous GoK 0 0 0 0

Goals
To increase access to safe water and sanitation
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Improve water and sanitation services
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Water supply and Sewerage
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Water and Sanitation Increase national coverage of water supply and sanitation Mombasa and other coastal towns adequately served with water and sanitation services Rehabilitation and expansion of Mzima pipeline
MWI, CWSB 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 500 5,000 8,000 12,500
Tourism and manufacturing activities adequately supported by improved infrastructure in these towns: Bunyunyu, Munyu, Londiani, Itare, Upper Narok, Chemesusu, Kiserian, Yatta, Thwake, Rare, Thiba, Umma, Rumuruti, Badasa, Archers’ Post, Awasi, Kora, Ndarugu, Mwachi, Ruiru A, Siyoi and Nyahururu. % increases in urban water supply and sanitation in satellite towns around Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Nakuru and Kisii
MWI, ALL WSBs 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 500 2,000 4,000 3,500
Increased potential to support manufacturing and tourism activities proposed in the economic pillar in Narok, Machakos, Maralal, Wajir,Wote, Hola, Chuka, Ruiru, Athi River, Siaya, Ol Kalou, Matuu, Maua, Moi’s Bridge and Limuru; No of medium size towns with rehabilitated and expanded urban water supply and sanitation MWI, RVWSB, AWSB, TANAWSB, NWSB 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 500 4,000 5,000 4,000
Resort cities in Isiolo, Lodwar and coastal region able to support economic development
% increase in water supply and Sanitation in the proposed resort cities MWI, NWSB, CWSB, RVWSB 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 0 1,000 1,500 2,700
Improved access to safe sanitation services. No of primary schools Provided withy improved sanitation facilities MWI, MIN. HEALTH, MIN ED., ALL WSBs 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 0 15 15 15
Increase national water supply and sanitation coverage in rural areas Developed and improved piped water supply schemes and sanitation facilities which are run by Government or Communities No of water and sanitation projects Construct / rehabiliotated annually. MWI, ALL WSBs 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 1,500 5,000 5,000 5,000
Water Supply coverage improved in the ASAL areas to support pastoralists and other communities. No of small dams/ pans desilted / constructed annually / MWI,NWCPC 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 600 1,000 1,000 1,000
Increase national water supply and sanitation coverage in urban areas Properly planned water and sanitation infrastructure and improved services supply to meet urban demand in these towns: Moyale, Kapsowar, Maseno, Kapenguria, Lokitaung, Karuri, Lamu, Chogoria, Chuka, Kilgoris and Kehancha No of medium towns with rehabilitated water and sewerage infrusctucture.

MWI, ALL WSBs 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 50 2,500 3,500 3,500
Ensured water supply and sanitation to meet urban demand for the population and industrialisation in the whole country % increases in water supply nationallys MWI, ALL WSBs 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 50 1,000 1,500 2,500
Flood mitigation programme Communities’ vulnerability to floods minimized in the flood prone areas of Bundalang’i, Kano Plains, Garissa, Hola, Taveta No of household protected from MWI, ALL WSBs 2008-2012 GoK/Development partners 400 700 800 900

Goals
Goal : Enhance Agricultural production through Irrigation and Drainage

Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Increase area under irrigation by 30% and agricultural production
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Development expansion and rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Development expansion and rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure Increase area under irrigation by at least 30% Area under irrigation increased from 110,000 ha to 210,000 by 2012 Ha of irrigated land MOWI, NIB, Private, individual farmers 4,000 8,000 14,000 16,000
To increase area under drainage Drainage increased from 30,000ha to 98,000ha by 2012 Ha of drained land increased MOWI, NIB, Private, individual farmers 2,040 4,080 7,140 7,140

Formulation of the Policy, Strategy & Institutional set up to guide on Land Reclamation and flash flood control activities in order to increase Land productivity

Increasing value for Agriculture & Livestock
National Land Reclamation policy document.

Land Reclamation Strategy (2008 – 2012) MWI 2008-2012
GOK 2 2.5

-

-

To increase the area of reclaimed land to enhance food security and productivity
New area based ASAL development programs,
done and implemented MWI 2008-2012
GOK 3
5 5 5
Asset creation for food and fodder security Increase water harvesting for food production or fodder improvement Water Storage and Availability Water harvesting structures, Pan dams, Bunds, Micro catchments, Rock catchments, Micro catchments, shallow wells MWI 2008-2012 WFP
& GOK 15 15.5 18.0 18.0

Develop CETRAD as a semi autonomous government agency (SAGA)
Institutional Capacity Building for research in ASAL development

Land Reclamation based research centre with regional centers MWI 2008-2012
GOK & Donor
1
20
30
10
To increase water storage and availability to people, livestock and wildlife in ASAL areas Water and Sanitation
20 water pans in program districts 20 water pans capacity 10,000m3, 50,000 people, 200,000 livestock and wildlife provided with water increasing productivity MWI
MWI 2008-2012
2008-2012 16.0 16.0 12.0 12.0

Increase tree cover in ASAL, Rehabilitated lands and watersheds in order to increase water storage and productivity of land Rehabilitation of degraded environments &
Watershed/catchments areas rehabilitation
Over 60,000 planted
in rehabilitated areas MWI 2008-2012 GOK & WFP 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0
Affirmative action in developing ASAL areas where there are many vulnerable persons and serious disparities in wealthy distribution and gender inequalities Equity in National Development, gender parity and the support for vulnerable people in ASALs. Increase in the incomes for the vulnerable and resource poor in the ASALs MWI 2008-2012 GOK 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Goals
To Increase productivity and utilization of degraded lands through land reclamation

Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Increase utilization of ASALs and waste lands through development of community water harvesting and storage (water pans)
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) ASAL Development
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012

Land reclamation
Promotion of alternative income generating activities in ASAL, rehabilitated reclaimed lands through use of Natural resources

Promotion of alternative use of ASAL resources and increased Rehabilitation of degraded environments
new sites identified,
farmers/land owners sensitized, new sites developed

Alternative and higher incomes to the communities in pastoral and ASAL areas MWI 2008-2012

GOK 2.2 2.5
3 2.5

Formulation of the Policy, Strategy & Institutional set up to guide on Land Reclamation and flash flood control activities in order to increase Land productivity

Increasing value for Agriculture & Livestock
National Land Reclamation policy document.

Land Reclamation Strategy (2008 – 2012) MWI 2008-2012
GOK 2 2.5

-

-

To increase the area of reclaimed land to enhance food security and productivity
New area based ASAL development programs,
done and implemented MWI 2008-2012
GOK 3
5 5 5
Asset creation for food and fodder security Increase water harvesting for food production or fodder improvement Water Storage and Availability Water harvesting structures, Pan dams, Bunds, Micro catchments, Rock catchments, Micro catchments, shallow wells MWI 2008-2012 WFP
& GOK 15 15.5 18.0 18.0

Develop CETRAD as a semi autonomous government agency (SAGA)
Institutional Capacity Building for research in ASAL development

Land Reclamation based research centre with regional centers MWI 2008-2012
GOK & Donor
1
20
30
10
To increase water storage and availability to people, livestock and wildlife in ASAL areas Water and Sanitation
20 water pans in program districts 20 water pans capacity 10,000m3, 50,000 people, 200,000 livestock and wildlife provided with water increasing productivity MWI
MWI 2008-2012
2008-2012 16.0 16.0 12.0 12.0

Increase tree cover in ASAL, Rehabilitated lands and watersheds in order to increase water storage and productivity of land Rehabilitation of degraded environments &
Watershed/catchments areas rehabilitation
Over 60,000 planted
in rehabilitated areas MWI 2008-2012 GOK & WFP 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0
Affirmative action in developing ASAL areas where there are many vulnerable persons and serious disparities in wealthy distribution and gender inequalities Equity in National Development, gender parity and the support for vulnerable people in ASALs. Increase in the incomes for the vulnerable and resource poor in the ASALs MWI 2008-2012 GOK 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
7.3 Forestry

Goals Increase area under natural forests and sustainably manage natural forest resources for environmental protection and enhanced economic growth
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Determine extent of Natural forest resources for improved management.
Intensify conservation & protection of natural forest resources for environmental goods and services
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Natural forest conservation and management programme (Conserve and protect the five water towers for increased water supply for domestic and industrial utilization)
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Rehabilitation of indigenous forests (5 water towers)
Rehabilitation and protection of 5 water catchments for continuous supply of environmental goods and services - 50,000 Ha planted.
-Construction of patrol bases
-Determined status of the Natural forests
-Participatory Forest and Ecosystem Management Plans. No of Hectares rehabilitated. Kenya Forest Service. 2008 – 2012 GoK / (world bank, ADB, FINIDA) 850 850 840 830
Mau Complex Land ownership and resettlement;

Restoration, livelihoods and resource mobilization:

Enforcement and outreach:

Mau Conserved

Protected water catchment

No of hactares recovered

Increased forest cover.

MEMR, MoL, MFW, KFS, KWS, MOYAS, MWI, OPM, OP, MoLG
MoGCSD
NEMA, Eviron Sector donors
Stakeholders 2008-2012 GoK
Development Partners
PPP 3000 3000 3000 3000


Goals
Increase productivity of industrial forest plantations and enhance efficiency in wood utilization
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 To manage plantation forests in a sustained yield basis to meet national industrial and domestic needs for forest products and services.
To determine forest plantations resources for improved management and increase area under tree plantations.
Enhance technologies applied in tree harvesting and timber utilization.
Enhance national food security and improve local livelihoods.
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Forest plantation and enterprise development (Increase hectarage of forest plantations and the quality of tree plantation resources)
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Forest plantation development Establish 25,000Ha of industrial forest plantation by Kenya Forest Service
Increased quality tree plantations area with survival of over 70% Number of hectares planted, % tree survival and quality of plantations Kenya Forest Service
2008 – 2012 GoK, Private sector, ADB, 800 800 800 500
Small Scale wood based enterprises Promote small scale wood based processing industries The MSE woodbased enterprises created 200 No of enterprises operationalized

No of jobs created KFS
Private sector
Development partners 2009-2012 Private sector 100 100 100 100
Comprehensive forest resource assessment and inventory Carry out forest inventory -Complete base data, information, maps, resources
-Status of plantations. Area of forest inventoried, plantation maps Kenya Forest Service
2008 – 2012 GoK/ World Bank) 1050 1050 1050 1030
Development of Eco tourism sites in state forests Diversification of tourism -Improved and sustainably managed ecosystems
-Increased revenue collection Number of ecotourism facilities established Kenya Forest Service, Private sector with community 2008-2012 Kenya Forest Service ,Private sector & communities 1,500 500 400 300
Establishment of tree out-grower schemes
Provided industries with alternative sources of wood -Increase in tree cover, -increased timber and fuel wood resources
-reduced pressure on state forests Area of farmland under plantations
No of private farmers engaged in scheme. Kenya Forest Service in partnership with communities and industries. 2008 – 2012 KFS and partner industries, KTDA, Pan-paper mills, BAT etc 1000 1000 1000 1000
Participatory Forest Management Involve stakeholders in joint management Improved forest management and ha planted under PELIS No of CFAs created, PFMP formulated and ha planted Kenya Forest Service ,Private sector with community 2008-2012 KFS, donors and communities 1000 1000 1000 1000

Goals
Promote Farm and Dry land Forestry to increase tree cover for sustained provision of goods and environmental services.
To develop and disseminate technologies in forest management, on-farm tree planting, forest utilization and forest information systems
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Enhance sustainable management of the fragile dry lands for livelihood support and sustained environmental goods and services.
Capacity building on staff and private farmers in order to promote tree productivity on private lands and increase contribution of forestry to local and national economies
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Farm forestry and extension development programmes (To engage more farmers in forestry based interventions and enterprises for improved environment and income generation)
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012 2012/2013
Commercialization of Non wood forest products.
(NWFP) Sustainable utilization of NWFP for poverty alleviation Increased participation of private entrepreneurs on non-wood forestry products Number of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) established Kenya Forest Service ,Private sector, 2008- 2012 GoK , Private sector, micro-finance with communities 500 500 500 500 500
Investment in bio-fuels as alternatives to fossil fuels. Investment in bio-fuels as alternative to fossil oil
Higher contribution of bio-fuels in the energy sector and the economy. Area planted with jatropha, crotons number of oil refineries established Kenya Forest Service ,Private sector, 2008 – 2012 GoK , Private sector, micro-finance 100 100 100 100 100
Clean development mechanism (CDM) through tree growing
Tap income from carbon trade through tree growing as carbon sink Increase in tree cover and higher income for participating individuals, groups and organizations. Number of CDM schemes established, income paid to farmers by carbon traders Kenya Forest Service, corporate partners, private investors and communities. 2008- 2012 GoK, Global transfer payments through Kyoto protocol and companies 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
Establishment of tree plantations in ranches Provided industries with alternative sources of wood More land devoted to trees in ranches and increased incomes. Number of Hectares under plantations Kenya Forest Service, private land owners 2008- 2012 Kenya Forest Service , Private land owners 20 20 20 20 20
Re-establish the bamboo zone in Mau, other suitable forests and river lines
Rehabilitate the water catchments areas in the Mau Forest

Develop National bamboo production and utilization strategy Increased area under bamboo, establishment of bamboo based cottage industries, and greater contribution to economic growth 9000 youth employed, more water flowing into the rivers from the Mau, increased and more efficient utilization of bamboo.
NGO, Civil Society in collaboration with KFS 2008 – 2012 Kenya forest service NGOs, Civil Society 30 30 30 30 30
Promote production of bamboo in all
forests, farmlands and riverine ecosystems Icrease forest cover and feedstock support to bamboo industry Increased forest coverage area

Forestry revenues No jobs created
No of industries relying on bamboo products KFS and partners
farmers 2009-2012 GOK
Partners
Development partners 120 120 120 120 120
Trust lands and local authority participation
Put local authority forests and forest lands under legal professional and technical management
Develop urban forestry, estates and highway beautification initiatives Improved management of forests under local authorities and increased beautification of more cities, towns, estates and highways. No of trustlands under professional management, No. of trees planted, in towns, estates and along highways. Kenya Forest Service, Local governments. NGO, Civil Society and communities 2008 – 2012 Kenya Forest Service, Local governments. Donors, NGO, Civil Society and communities NGO, Civil Society 300 300 200 200

Goals
Establish effective legal, institutional and physical structures and instruments for KFS to spearhead development of the forestry sector.
Establish and strengthen community based organizational structures to mainstream community participation in forestry management
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Enhance the capacity of KFS, stakeholders and communities to undertake joint forestry management
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Institutional capacity and infrastructure (Create/strengthen KFS conservancies, zones, staff recruitment and establish Community Forest Associations and Forest Conservation Committees)
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Develop and implement 19 rules and regulations To achieve appropriate guidance and instruments to direct the forestry sector. Gazzetted rules and regulations Complete and published documents KFS and partners 2008-2010 GoK/ Donors- FINIDA, World bank 30 30 20 0
Development of forest management plans for all forests. Comply with act requirement and enhance quality of forests in the country. Forest Management plans developed and contributing to improved management of forests. Completed and implemented forest management plans. KFS, partners- stakeholders and communities 2008- 2013 GoK, Donors, Stakeholders and communities. 2000 2000 2000 2000
Information & data management Develop & manage forest resource data base Establishment of forest geo data base and enhanced ability to continue acquisition Established data center, maps and inventory data. Developed procedures and funds for continuity. KFS and DRSRS 2008 – 2012 GoK (KFS) & Donors (Miti Mingi Maisha Bora project ) 500 500 500 500
Protection and compliance To enhance forest health & enforce the forest Act 2005 Increased community involvement in forest conservation, management and protection
Reduction in conflicts with forests Forest Rangers employed, Area under protection.
Increased collaboration with community scouts KFS and forest adjacent communities 2008/09 – 2012/13 Development partners- ADB (Green zones project) 300 300 300 300
Capacity building staff Improve
Organizational and physical infrastructures. Management and monitoring of forest resources,
Update technical staff, skills Established organizational sector infrastructure and instruments, Technically equipped staff. KFS physical Establishments, Number of trained staff, No of created. KFS, Donors, Civil Society, Institutions of higher learning and community members. 2008-2012 GoK / Donors 200 200 200 200
Capacity building communities Education and awareness creation
Promote Community ecosystems initiatives and empower communities to participate in forest management. More informed public
Empowered community based structures No of functional CFAs and FCCs
Reduced conflicts in forest management GoK, Donors and Civil Societies 2008 / 2009 to 2012/2013 GoK, Donors and Civil Societies 600 600 300 300

Goals
Develop human capacity in forestry and related natural resources management and environmental sector
Develop and Promote partnership with research, higher institutions and other stakeholders for collaborative training
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Develop staff for the development of the forestry sub sector
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Institutional capacity and infrastructure-Kenya Forestry College (Develop and regularly review curriculum to address relevant and immerging needs)
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Forestry technical training (diploma and certificate) Ensure relevance to present global and local issues Highly skilled technical personnel No of graduating students KFS collaborating institutions and Stakeholders. 2012-2013 GoK. Donor and participating institutions 100 100 100 100
Short courses for external clients To address emerging issues in the sector and provide interactive fora for technical practitioners in the sector. Emerging issues addressed and client priority needs for clients met Number of courses and participants trained. KFS and Stakeholders. 2012-2013 GoK. Donor and participating institutions 20 250 30 30
KFC staff development Ensure that staff running lead agency is equipped and up to date for accomplishing mandate. More KFS staff equipped with relevant skills and KFS management improved No of staff trained KFS and Stakeholders. 2012-2013 GoK , Donor and participating institutions 30 30 40 40
Curriculum development for demand driven courses Provide opportunity to prioritize special needs for clients Emerging issues addressed and client priority needs for clients met Number of courses captured and implemented KFS and Stakeholders. 2012-2013 GoK/ Donor 1 1 1 1
Review Diploma and certificate forestry curricula Ensure relevance to present global and local issues Emerging issues addressed and client priority needs for clients met Reviewed curriculum KFS, collaborating institutions and Stakeholders. 2012-2013 GoK/ Donor 10 10 10 10
Complete development of college strategic plan To provide direction for college development Guide document for college development Complete plan strategic plan KFS and Stakeholders. 2012-2013 GoK/ Donor 2 2 0 0
Community sensitization, outreach & participation in ASK shows
To create awareness and show case packages provided by college Increased popularity of the college and. higher private student intake No of students intake and trends. KFS and Stakeholders. GoK/ Donor 1 1 1 1
Establishment of arboretum and demonstration plots To enhance training instruments Improved leisure and training facilities. Completion of the arboretum and demo plots KFS and Stakeholders. 2012-2013 GoK/ Donor 2 3 0.5
0.5

7.4 Wildlife

Goals
To promote wildlife conservation and management
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 conservation of wildlife and its habitats
Programmes (Strategic Thrust)
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Strengthen law enforcement To improve safety and security of tourists and wildlife. 400 rangers per annum recruited and trained

% Reduction in incidence of poaching

% reduction in human-wildlife conflicts

% Reduction in incidences of tourists attacks
% reduction in tourists harassment Rangers recruited

Incidences of poached reduced

No of tourists increase KWS,
2008-2012 GoK, Donors 500

600

800

900

Securing wildlife migratory corridors To ensure periodical wildlife dispersal Wilflife Migratory corridor secured No of migratory corridors secured KWS and stakeholders
Ministry
Development partners
Local Authorities 2010 GOK
Private sector 100 100 100
Premium Parks Initiative – (Maasai Mara, Samburu, Amboseli and Nakuru) To ensure sustainability of the parks and better revenue yields Increased revenue yield
- Revenue trends
- No of park visitors KWS, MoFW
Local Authorities
Private Sector
MORPW
2008-2012 GoK, Donors,
Private sector 600 600 500 500
Underutilized Parks Initiative (Meru, Mt. Kenya, Tsavo East and West, Mt Elgon, Ruma, Rimoi Marsabit Nasolot, Sibiloi Saiwa Swamps) To reduce congestion in the premium parks

To spur economic benefits to other regions Increased and revenue yield

Reduced Congestion in the premium parks

Increased bed capacity
Revenue trends
No Park visitors KWS, MoT,KTB
Local Authorities
Local Communities
KTDC
Private Sector
MORPW
OP 2008-2012 GoK, Donors,
Private sector 800 800 500 500
Wildlife industry governance Develop, implement and review conservation guidelines and regulation Stakeholder sensitization

Domesticate wildlife research and utilization guidelines

Dissemination of convention and treaties No sensitization

No of conventions disseminated MoE&R
KWS
MoFW 2008-2012 GoK, Donors 20 20 20 20
Maintain ecological integrity Develop and implement species management and conservation strategies Documented key ecosystem hot spots

Healthy and viable wildlife population

Conduct resource inventory

Secure wildlife corridors

Protected Area planning framework

Manage research information and database Key ecosystem hot spots documented

Resource inventory done

No corridors secured

No of Planning framework done

Database in place KWS, MoE&R
MoFW
2008-2012 GoK, Donors,

Research Institutiions 350 495 550 600
Resource Mobilisation Development of endowment fund Enhanced revenue generation
Fund in place KWS,
GoK 2008-2012 Gok,
Donors
75 75 75 75
Development of Niche Products
-Ecotourism
-Cultural tourism
-Sports tourism
-Cruise tourism
-Bird watching
-Heritage and historic sites To Diversify and develop tourism products Western Kenya circuit Branded as Kenya’s Eco tourism hub No ecotourism facility developed KWS
MTW, Private Sector 2008-2012 GoK, Donors,
Private sector 60 69 75 80

7.5 Mineral Resources
Goal
To promote, and sustainably manage mineral resources for national development
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 Creation of an enabling environment through policy, legal and regulatory reforms so as to generate, manage disseminate geological and mineral information for sustainable management of mineral resources.
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) To increase the contribution of the mining industry to the countries GDP
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
New Mineral Resources development Policy and a Modern Mining Bill A new mineral resources policy and a Revised Mining Act to encourage growth of investment in the sector in place. Draft Minerals Policy and Mining Bill with the Attorney General for onward transmission to parliament for enactment. New Minerals Policy and Modern Mining Act in place.

Increased number of investments in the mining sector. Attorney General’s Chambers and Parliament.

Mines & Geological Department. 2008-2010 GoK 2.5 2.0
Geological mapping To complete mapping 20% of the unmapped areas of the country and revision mapping. A complete Geological Map of Kenya indicating the mineral potential Geological Map of Kenya

Mineral Resource Potential of Kenya. Mines & Geological Department. 2008-2012 GoK/Donor 120 200 300 120
Mineral Exploration Detailed exploration and assessment of mineral potential in various parts of the country. Improved mineral database and reserve estimates Mineral deposit maps

Mineral resource database. Mines & Geological Department. 2008-2012 GoK/Donor 100 200 100 100

Mineral Development

Support for Small Scale Mining
Increased investment in Mining Sector, resulting in increased contribution to the GDP by the Sector.

Establishment of a flourishing and environmentally friendly Small Scale Mining Industry.
Flourishing mining industry.

Increased contribution to GDP by Small Scale Mining Industry.

Wealth creation among the rural poor.
Increased number of new operational mines, and evaluated mineral deposits.

Financially stable artisanal Miners

Increased employment in the Small Scale Mining Sector in rural areas
Mines & Geological Department

Mines & Geological Department
2008-2012

2008-2012
GoK

GoK/PPP
25

14
30

12
35

10
40

8
National or regional geo-hazard zone mapping. Mitigation and monitoring of geo-hazard occurrences Potential for prediction, monitoring and mitigation of geo-hazard occurrences. Geo-hazard zone maps and reports.

Twelve seismological stations in place countrywide.
Mines & Geological Department/
Meteorological Department 2008-2012 GoK/Donor 120 120 120 120
Rehabilitation of disused Mines and Quarries To protect and sustainably manage the environment A friendly and sustainably managed environment Number of rehabilitated mines and Quarries
Mines & Geological Department 2008-2012 GoK 5 7 9 11
Development of Geo-tourism sites Diversification of tourism base. Increased earnings from geo-tourism in the rural areas. Geo-tourism site maps accompanied with relevant information. Mines & Geological Department/KTB/PPP 2008-2012 GoK/PPP 20 20 20 20
Capacity building:
• Laboratory Services

• Development of a GIS geo-database
To improve efficiency and reliability (ISO Std.) of laboratory services.

To establish a digital geo-information centre.
Rapid and reliable analytical results for clients.

Rapid access and dissemination of geo-information
Modern installed equipment.

Competent staff in place.

Geo-database in place.

Mines & Geological Department/ KEBS

Mines & Geological Department
2008-2012

2008-2012
GoK

GoK
40

20
60

30
60

30
60

20
• Construction of additional office space and a drill core/ geological samples godown at Madini House Provision of adequate working space for the staff increase and a secure samples godown. Adequate and friendly working space, and secure storage of field samples Office space and godown in place. Mines & Geological Department 2008-2011 GoK 50 100 30

7.6 ARID Lands
Goals

Strategic Objectives 2008-2012
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Natural Resource Management
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Strengthen community-based natural resource management, institutions To build capacity for natural resource management Improved natural resource management at the all levels MDNK&OAL, MEMR, NEMA 2008-2012 GoK 200 200 200 200
Strengthen water and soil conservation in the catchments areas To conserve natural resources A friendly and sustainably managed the environment MDNK&OAL, MEMR, NEMA 2008-2012 GoK 400 400 400 400
Establish, divisional, locational and community environmental management committees. To protect and sustainable manage the environment A friendly and sustainably managed the environment MDNK&OAL, MEMR, NEMA 2008-2012 GoK 80 80 80 80
Facilitate community consultations over utilisation of resources by different communities To raise awareness at all levels Natural resources concerns addressed MDNK&OAL, MEMR, NEMA 2008-2012 GoK 120 120 120 120
Promote cross-border natural resource management initiatives To protect and sustainable manage the environment A friendly and sustainably managed the environment MDNK&OAL, MEMR, NEMA 2008-2012 GoK 80 80 80 80
Encourage tree planting and a forestation To establish rural forest plantation Increased area of ASAL under plantation MDNK&OAL, MEMR, Kenya Forest Services 2008-2012 GoK 400 400 400 400

Goals

Strategic Objectives 2008-2012
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Water Development
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012
Conservation and management of water catchments Increase access to safe water in ASAL areas Water provision for ASAL communities Size of catchnment areas conserved MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 400 400 400 400
Rehabilitation of various boreholes/wells at Kshs.1.5 million each Increase access to safe water in ASAL areas Water provision for ASAL communities No of borehole rehabilitated MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 700 700 700 700
Construction of 262 boreholes at Kshs. 3 million each Increase access to safe water Water provision for ASAL communities No of borehole constructed MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 1,440 1,440 1,440 1,440
Rehabilitation of 242 water pans at Kshs.1.5 million each Increase access to safe water in ASAL areas Water provision for ASAL communities No, of water oans constructed MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 726 726 726 726
Construction of 150 water pans/conservation dams at 1.5 m each Increase access to safe water in ASAL areas Water provision for ASAL communities Water pands and conservation dams constucted MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 450 450 450 450
Desilting of water pans/water catchments protection Increase access to safe water in ASAL areas Water provision for ASAL communities No of water pans desilted , catchments protected MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 700 700 700 700
Construction of 100 dams at Kshs.50 million each Increase access to safe water in ASAL areas Water provision for ASAL communities No of dams costruccted MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Improvement of water and sanitation systems in urban centers Increase access to safe water in ASAL areas Water & sanitation services provided to ASAL communities % of improvement of water and sanitation system MDNK&OAL, MW&I, WRMAs 2008-2012 GoK 700 700 700 700
Irrigation development-7,800Ha at Kshs.Kshs.900 million/Ha To promote agricultural productivity in ASALs Land under irrigation extended by 7,800Ha No of ha irrigated MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 1,450 1,450 1,450 1,450
Support quick response Teams in 39 districts Enhanced food security Establish food security status in the ASAL districts No of teams MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 620 620 620 620
Community capacity building for water supply and maintenance for 39 districts Increase access to safe water in ASAL areas Water provision for ASAL communities No capacity build MDNK&OAL, MW&I 2008-2012 GoK 800 800 800 800
Improved access to safe water and good sanitation Increase access to safe water in ASAL areas Water & sanitation services provided to ASAL communities No accessing safe water MDNK&OAL, MW&I, WRMAs 2008-2012 GoK

400 400 400 400

7.7 Youth Affairs

Goals
To promote Increased participation of the youth in the protection, preservation and improvement of the environment
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 To increase participation of the youth in the protection preservation/conservation and improvement of the environment
Programmes (Strategic Thrust)
Projects Objectives Expected Output/Outcome Indicator(s) Implementing Agency Time Frame Source of Funds Indicative Budget (in Kshs Million)
2008/2009 2009/2010 2010/2011 2011/2012

.
.
To increase awareness of MOYA programmes,
Collaborate and network with stakeholders on environmental issues
Increased awareness on environmental conservation amongst the youth 1050 workshops held ,one per constituency MOYAS 2008-2012 GOK 20 15 15 15
Increased innovation in environmental management 1050 workshops held ,one per constituency MOYAS
NEMA
MIN OF ENV
Kenya Forest Services 2008-2012 GOK 1` 1 1 1
Mass tree planting countrywide to increase participation of the youth in protection, preservation/conservation and improvement of the environment. Improved youth participation in environmental issues 5,000,000 trees planted countrywide MOYAS
Kenya Forest Services 2008-2012 GOK 10 10 10 10
To create job opportunities for the youth as they conserve the environment Increased job opportunities for the youth 84,000,000 trees planted MOYAS
UNDP
PRIVATE SECTORS 2008-2012 GOK 210 210 210 210
To increase participation of the youth in protection, preservation/conservation and improvement of the environment. Improved youth participation in environmental issues 1050 trees nurseries established throughout the country MOYAS 2008-2012 GOK 10 10 10 10
Conduct environmental clinics countrywide to increase youth awareness on environmental issues Increased awareness on environmental conservation amongst the youth 1050 environmental clinics conducted across the country MOYAS 2008-2012 GOK 10 10 10 10
Establish environmental clubs countrywide to protect and sustainably manage the environment A friendly and sustainably managed environment 2000 environmental clubs established throughout the country MOYAS 2008-2012 GOK 2 3 3 3
Mass clean ups countrywide Tto increase participation of the youth in protection, preservation/conservation and improvement of the environment. Improved youth participation in environmental issues 1050 mass clean-up throughout the country MOYAS 2008-2012 GOK 10 10 10
Establish youth environmental committees countrywide to protect and sustainably manage the environment A friendly and sustainably managed environment 1050 youth environmental committees established countrywide MOYAS 2008-2012 GOK 2 2 2 2
Organize Keep Kenya Klean campaigns(3ks to increase participation of the youth in protection, preservation/conservation and improvement of the environment. Improved youth participation in environmental issues 1050 Keep Kenya Klean campaigns
(3 Ks) MOYAS 2008-2012 GOK 3 3 3 3
7.8 SPECIAL PROGRAMMES (MoSSP)
Goals
Strategic Objectives 2008-2012 1.
Programmes (Strategic Thrust) Programmes will be implemented through the Sector wide approach (SWAP)
Projects Objectives Expected output/outcomes Indicators Implementing
agency Time Frame Source of funds Indicative budget(Ksh .in M)
2008 / 2009 2009/ 2010 2010/
2011 2011/ 2012
Early Warning System Expand the national Early Warning System Early Warning System expanded MoSSP 2008-2012 PPP 500 500 500 500
Western Kenya Community Development and Flood Mitigation Project To construct dykes and put measures to mitigate against floods Dykes and floods mitigation measures put in place MoSSP,
IDA 2008 - 2012 PPP 20 25 30 30
Implement flood plains management To invest in flood mitigation structures, including the rehabilitation and strengthening the existing dikes Improved livelihoods for communities in flood plains MoSSP 2008 - 2012 Gok 100 100 100 100
Grand totals 38,658 76,113.15 91.142 97,846.25




 

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